By Rayan Kayssi
Katie’s diet analysis indicates that she consumes about 2500 kcalories, with 42% of her kcals from carbohydrates. She is consuming about 16 grams of fiber for the day.
The amount of carbohydrate in grams that Katie is currently consuming is:
42/100 = x / 2500
x = 1050 kcal
1050 kcal / 4 kcal/g = 262.5 g
The amount of carbohydrate in grams that Katie should be consuming is:
45/100 = x / 2500
x = 1125 kcal
1125 kcal / 4 kcal/g = 281.25 g
Katie needs to consume at least (281.25 – 262.5) 18.75 more grams of carbohydrate to meet the recommendation of 45-65% of energy.
2) Do you think her carbohydrate intake comes mostly from complex sources or simple sugars?
Her carbohydrate intake comes mostly from complex sugar sources, such as: starches and fibers.
3) Are the carbohydrate-containing foods in her diet from whole or refined sources?
The carbohydrate-containing foods in Katie’s diet are mostly from refined sources. She didn’t consume any whole sources, such as whole grains.
4) Which groups in the Food Pyramid contribute the most to her intake? Did she meet the recommendations?
The “bread, cereal, rice, and pasta” group contributes the most to Katie’s intake. Most of the food she consumed throughout the day contained carbohydrate.
She definitely didn’t meet the recommendations for the different groups in the food pyramid, such as the vegetables, and the fruits.
She needed at least 1-3 servings of fruits, and all she ate was a banana, which is also a good source of starch.
5) Does Katie meet her recommended fiber intake?
Katie needs to consume 14g of fiber per 1000 kcal. Her diet is based on 2500 kcal, so she needs:
14 / 1000 = x / 2500
(14 * 2500) / 1000 = 35g So, Katie needs 35g of fiber everyday. Since she is consuming about 16, she needs approximately 19 more grams of fiber in her diet.
6) What could Katie do to increase her carbohydrate intake to the recommended range and meet her goals for fiber intake? Modify her diet accordingly.
Katie needs to have more carbohydrate and fiber in her diet. To increase her carbohydrate intake, she can substitute some of the things she eats with better choices.
For example, instead of eating potato chips, she could drink milk, or instead of having a raisin bagel in the morning, she could use whole wheat bread for the sandwich.
She could also use the whole wheat bread for the turkey sandwich. Katie can also use more vegetables and fruits in her diet to increase the amount of fibers she is consuming.
For example, she could have cereal for breakfast, or have fruits for snacks instead of the potato chips. Apples, kiwi, banana, pear, and oranges are good source of fibers.
She needs to watch out from the foods that are high glycemic indexes, and rather consume more of the low glycemic index foods such as: peanuts, soybeans, wheat bread, milk, apple, apple juice, and more.
Steve needs about 2200 kcalories per day to maintain his weight. His diet provides about 1100 kcalories and is made up of 25 grams of carbohydrate, 125 grams of protein, and 44 grams of fat per day.
His fluid intake amounts to about 3 cups per day.
7) Which groups of the FGP are likely to be low in Steve’s diet? What nutrient deficits might appear in his diet?
The “bread, cereal, rice, and pasta” group would definitely appear to be low in Steve’s diet. It would probably appear that he has glucose deficits in his diet.
8) How are Steve’s symptoms related to his diet?
Any diet that limits carbohydrate causes the body to rely on fat or muscle for energy, and may cause dehydration.
When our body breaks down stored fat to supply energy, it creates a by-product called ketones, which are lost in urine and also come out via the breath. These by-products suppress appetite, yet they also cause fatigue and nausea.
9) Why can ketosis develop in type-I diabetes even when plenty of carbohydrate is consumed?
The absence of insulin in the Type 1 diabetic leads to a toxic build-up of blood glucose causing an excessive break down of body fat and muscle tissues.
This condition is the presence of excessively high glucose and Ketone bodies at the same time.
The condition is never present in a non diabetic on a low-carbohydrate diet, where beneficial Ketosis is achieved. Normal Ketosis stabilizes blood glucose within a normal range and prevents the break down of healthy muscle tissue.
Ketosis was common and normal in all primitive people who lived on a high-protein, high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet such as the North American plains Indians and Eskimos.
Consuming plenty of carbohydrate doesn’t affect ketosis after its development in type 1 diabetes patients because they do not depend on insulin anymore and the carbohydrate consumption doesn’t make a difference anymore.