Author of this article Gary C. Vesperman
For the past few years, I have been accumulating knowledge of futuristic technologies not commonly known among mainstream scientists. I have personally had the pleasure to know some of the top scientists and inventors involved with what has been referred to as a mostly un-publicised international "underground" science research network. Disregarding the scientific dogma taught by academia, these people have chosen to follow their own independent paths of scientific discovery to whatever they feel the genuine scientific truth may be.
I have selected several advanced technologies which seem to be useable for the foreign resort project. Their selection was based on their being available for purchase and are definitely past the research and development stage. Implementation of most of these technologies could occur anytime before, during or after the construction phase of the project. However, it should be noted that the electric station car and photo-luminescent therapy technologies ought to be adopted as soon as possible as they happen to substantially impact architectural design and construction. The electrical power infrastructure could also be affected by adopting one or more small-scaled electrical generation technologies. Retro fitting at a later date could be costly.
I also have selected a few advanced technologies which are still under development but may have potential applications for the resort project.
Please be warned that investments and purchases in any of these advanced technologies should proceed only after a thorough and cautious exercise in due diligence. Yet their developers usually do deserve respect and fairness. In most cases, I can not personally take responsibility for the accuracy and validity of my descriptions; I am only editing other people’s reports.
The literature on the devices which involve extracting energy from radioactive substances, the ether, hydrogen, etc. contains anecdotes of strangely behaving devices and explosions and, in some cases, of bodily injury and even death!
Before experimenting with such devices, protect yourself from harm! Please try to be well-informed of other experimenters’ experience with these strange devices and beware of danger.
Gary C. Vesperman
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DAVIS TIDAL TURBINE
ELECTRIC STATION CARS
CRIME, SUBSTANCE ABUSE, AND BIRTH DEFECTS
POWR/MASTR INDUSTRIAL ENGINE
PULSED ABNORMAL GLOW DISCHARGE REACTOR
ETHERIC WEATHER ENGINEERING
TESTATIKA FREE ENERGY MACHINE
GEOEXCHANGE HEAT PUMP
MICROPOROUS SOLID GEL
COMPUTERIZED FIBER OPTIC SCHOOL NETWORK
TORSION FIELD-BASED COMMUNICATIONS
SMALL-SCALED ENERGY PRODUCTION
ADVANCED SELF-POWERED ELECTRIC VEHICLE CONCEPT
Davis Tidal Turbine
The worldwide electrical energy market has been estimated at $800 billion (US) per year and rising. "There are 2 billion people who still lack electricity today, and the world demand in developing countries is doubling every eight years." (World Watch Institute, May 1997)
The Institute for New Energy maintains a database of 127 new energy production devices which includes a list based on commercialisation criteria ranging from 0 (found to be lies) to 10 (proven prototype – ready for commercialisation). (I know of several such devices that don’t appear to be included in their database.) The Davis tidal turbine, invented by Canadian aerospace engineer Barry Davis, is one of only two new energy devices which have earned a ranking of 10. His company, Blue Energy Canada, Inc., owns one patent and has filed additional patent applications.
The Davis tidal turbine captures the power of ocean currents and tides to generate electric current in a module fitted with slowly rotating hydrofoils. The module does not emit gas of any kind, nor do the hydrofoils offer any threat to marine organisms swimming through them. With fixed rotor blades mounted in durable marine concrete caissons, the Davis tidal turbine’s mechanical simplicity is profound. The basic concept is the multiple vertical-axis hydro turbine. They are large marine structures of reinforced concrete and steel that provide the necessary economies of scale. They generally can be installed in areas with a tidal regime of about 1 meter or more, or where velocities exceed about 2 meters per second. Standardised tidal turbine modules can be grouped to meet any site application from ocean to river in sizes that range from 7.5 megawatts to 15 megawatts for ocean use, and 5 kilowatts to 500 kilowatts for river use.
The Davis tidal turbine is a low-cost, eco-benign energy alternative. Fuelled by the free forces of rivers and ocean tides and currents, tidal power can provide a significant amount of the world's energy needs. Energy costs with the Davis tidal turbine will be around $0.06/kilowatt-hour and eventually should drop to $0.035/kilowatt-hour for tidal fences in the 1000-megawatt range. Power outputs from the larger units can be accurately predicted to within 2% accuracy.
In many instances, tidal fences can double up with transportation corridors, providing dual infrastructure use with essentially single infrastructure cost. Coupled with existing grid prices and mounting social and environmental costs associated with conventional power generation (health care, climate change, etc.) tidal power is an outstanding and sustainable energy choice. Remote sites can also produce hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide, methane and other valuable energy intensive products for widespread distribution, as well as provide irrigation and desalination facilities.
Tidal energy sites in the world's oceans can provide a significant, viable and cost-effective source of reliable, inexhaustible energy. Many are strategically located close to populated areas where they can be economically harnessed using an ecologically benign, low-head technology. For example, British Columbia may have up to 50,000 megawatts of potential tidal power resource.
The Philippines Presidential Office had announced on December 20, 1997 a $136,000,000 (US) order for a pilot tidal power generation facility which is likely to be in the Hinatuan Passage area just north of Mindanao. Its average power output will be 30 megawatts, and its peak power will be 55 megawatts. The pilot project is performance-coupled to the future development rights of a 1000-megawatt commercial project. The Philippines hope to become energy exporters.
Electric Station Cars
The Las Vegas Chapter of the Electric Auto Association appears to be one of the association’s stronger chapters. I have attended over 80% of their monthly meetings for the past several years. I myself have written an Advanced Self-Powered Electric Vehicle concept (see end of this paper). The "super car" concept is a proposal for combining advanced technologies I have collected over the past few years into a futuristic self-powered car superior to conventional cars.
On November 20, 1997, at their November meeting, Martin J. Bernard III, Ph.D., Executive Director of the National Station Car Association, spoke on "Station Car Potential in Las Vegas". Of all the meetings I have attended, his talk was the most practical application of electric vehicles I have heard. Because I could see an obvious application of the station car concept to the foreign resort project, I thought I would list a few key points for further discussion:
Many pages of additional information and diagrams concerning electric station cars are available on the National Station Car Association’s Web site (www.stncar.com). The Web site includes a photograph which shows some of the 40 electric station cars currently being used in conjunction with the Bay Area Transit District in the San Francisco Bay Area. There are a total of 60 other station cars in several other cities around the United States.
The resort project as presently planned probably allows for lots of parking space for gasoline-powered cars, gas stations, auto repair facilities, etc. Because the project is still in the planning stages, there is a high probability that it can be easily converted to emphasis on electric station cars. Only three simple changes would have to be made to the plans:
In return, the resort would gain the following benefits:
Electric station cars are not owned by the drivers. Instead they are owned by an operator such as a municipality or transportation authority. They are intended for use at places featuring frequent usage and regular access such as train stations, airports, hotels, convention halls, and downtown areas.
A driver who has previously bought a smart card (similar to a credit card) swipes the card through a card reader which allows him access to the station car. He or she then unplugs the car from the charger, drives off, and leaves it either at the same charging station or a different charging station, which is then available for the next driver to drive. Arrangements can be made to leave it at home overnight providing it is driven again the following morning.
The cars are manufactured in Norway by a family-owned plastic manufacturer. The car body is a simple lightweight one-piece plastic shell framed with extruded rods made of recycled aluminium. It is surprisingly sturdy and can carry two passengers. The pack of nickel-cadmium batteries is hung underneath the body and range up to 65 miles.
It is reasonable to anticipate that a variety of sizes and improved models of electric vehicles will become available in a few short years. For instance, on October 23, 1997, a pre-production Sunrise prototype built by Solectria Corporation, Wilmington, Massachusetts, was driven from Boston to New York City on a single charge of its Ovonic nickel/metal-hydride battery with enough electricity left over to drive an additional 66 kilometers to Atlantic City for a total range of 405 kilometers (IEEE Spectrum December 1997). Power Technology, Inc., has a brand new battery, compared to lead-acid batteries, that is 30% to 50% lighter, insensitive to temperature, long-lived, cheaper, environmentally friendly, quickly rechargeable, and quadruples the range.
Blacklight Power, Inc., is developing a battery which weighs only 10 kilograms but can supply 150 horsepower for 1,000 miles. Blacklight compresses hydrogen atoms into lower-energy-state hydrogen atoms called "hydrinos". When the hydrinos are formed, energy is released which is considerably more than the energy from chemical reactions but less than from nuclear reactions.
Each car is equipped with a commercially available electronic tracking device. The San Francisco Bay Area is ringed with 15 transmitting towers. Each car can be located with an accuracy of 4 feet in case it is stolen.
At each station, a driver returning a car is responsible for cleaning the car and plugging the car into a battery charger before leaving it.
Crime, Substance Abuse, and Birth Defects
In 1996, 10,510 crimes in Atlantic City, New Jersey were reported. Of that total, the number of crimes that had occurred on the floors of the city’s 12 casino hotels was 5,705 (Las Vegas Review-Journal December 22, 1997).
One unpleasant memory I have of my stay in Honolulu, Hawaii about 15 years ago was the necessity to leave unessential valuables in a hotel lock box before venturing on to the streets and beaches.
Fortunately, once the root cause of crime and substance abuse is understood, a substantial reduction in social mis- behavior could be surprisingly simple and inexpensive to achieve and require only moderate organising. A relatively crime-free resort area should offer competitive advantages.
I own an interesting book "RARE EARTHS: Forbidden Cures" which substantiates the thesis that mineral deficiencies in food causes crime and substance abuse in addition to medical problems. The book’s authors are Joel D. Wallach, BS, DVM, ND, and Ma Lan, MD, MS, and it can be ordered at 800-755-4656. One of their more authoritative sources of information and data was the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The USDA has been noticing with dismay statistical correlations between mineral depletion in soils and the combination of increased crime and declining mental and physical health among the U.S. population since at least the 1930’s.
Veterinarians ensure nearly 100% healthy and strong livestock by adding trace elements to their feed. Research has found that people also equally need trace elements. The tally so far is 60 minerals including many obscure elements such as gallium, 16 vitamins, 12 amino acids, and 3 essential fatty acids. Furthermore, to be useable by the human body, the minerals in particular must be in a plant-derived colloidal suspension. Evidently, combination vitamin/mineral pills taken by many people are mostly useless as well as incomplete.
Decades of application of synthetic fertilisers have severely depleted agricultural soils of trace elements. One result of mineral deficiencies in food is increased disease such as cancer and heart disease. Not so obvious but proven are substantial increases in alcoholism, narcotic addition, and violently anti-social behaviour.
Studies have also proven that nutritionally complete diets from conception through college age ensure the raising of children who are taller, stronger, brainier, well behaved, more energetic, longer-lived, and relatively free of birth defects and disease. 98% of birth defects are caused by nutritional deficiencies.
Some health food stores sell colloidal mineral dietary supplements. Mineral supplements could be added to the lunches that are served children in schools and colleges. Prisons and mental hospitals could easily add minerals to the diets of their inmates. Government-sponsored educational campaigns would be required to educate general populations.
Another Las Vegas company sells an inexpensive mineral fertiliser from the world’s most complete deposit of trace elements. Enriching agricultural soils with their mineral fertiliser so as to add trace elements to foodstuffs would also help alleviate crime and substance abuse.
(Since the foregoing was written, questions have been raised concerning the effectiveness of colloidal mineral dietary supplements. The human body’s need for trace elements remains undisputed; it’s the delivery system using colloidal mineral suspensions that is being questioned. Some experts claim that chelated minerals offer more thorough absorption by the body, and that with chelated minerals, manufacturers are able to control which minerals are placed in their dietary supplements.)
For a couple of years, I have been accumulating information on alternatives to the unsatisfactory and expensive conventional cancer treatment methods of radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy. The following is a list of about two dozen cancer treatments that I sometimes provide in private to friends and relatives. To my knowledge, none of them have been legally approved for cancer treatment by the Food and Drug Administration. Please note that I am not a licensed medical practitioner. I can not legally recommend any of them for treating cancer.
All I do is rub my hands together for a few seconds, close my eyes, mentally say to myself "The mind has no providence for limitations", open my eyes, and then lay my hands on the patient’s problem area. If I can feel heat flowing through my hands, I know it is working. When the heat stops, I either quit or move to another spot on the patient’s body. I have cured elbow pain, headaches, and even my brother’s shortness of breath for a short while.
Since 1989 when I learned Reikki, I have struggled to understand the underlying mechanism. I have repeatedly seen it work, but it’s obvious Reikki’s effects are hardly explainable by conventional science. Recently I finally picked up a clue from a French acupuncturist’s report in www.keelynet.com/keely/belizal.text. The ancient Egyptians were able to correlate different wave forms with different geometric shapes. There is an implication that objects can store and transfer between them, when touching, subtle forms of information. So possibly when an ill or injured person is touched by healthy people with positive minds, information is somehow transferred to be used for correcting damaged tissue.
Monarch butterflies are unique in that migratory information is passed from generation to generation. They are somehow able to fly north for the summer from their winter homes in Mexico and certain Central California coastal areas such as Monterey and Santa Cruz and then able to fly back to their winter homes, passing along precise migratory information from generation to generation. It has been suggested that their migratory information is somehow embedded in their genetic code. Another possibility is that their migratory information is accurately retained by their physical bodies in more subtle form, possibly in the halo which appears in Kirlian photography, as the Monarch butterflies reproduce again, again, and again for thousands of generations with absolutely no loss of migratory information.
If true, an even more startling speculation arises: Many of the ancient peoples have acquired beliefs (colored by various religious symbols and rituals) that people don’t just die and that’s the end of them. Instead, the information and memories accumulated within each person as a result of genetic heritage and his or her living a life is retained in a very subtle form not normally perceivable by people still living. Their information packages are sometimes called "spirits", "ghosts", or "souls".
If the progression from Reikki healing and the association between waveforms and the shapes of objects to Monarch butterflies to a conscious being surviving the dying process is accepted, then perhaps we have physical evidence, however flimsy, of the existence of the soul.
I have been told that there are a total of 28 alternative cancer treatments worldwide. It has been predicted to me that in five to ten years, radiation and chemotherapy will be banned, and surgery greatly reduced because they are so brutal and ineffective as well as being excessively expensive.
It also has been explained to me that cancer must have two conditions in tissue to thrive ¾ acidity and lack of oxygen. It does appear that the basis for some of these alternative cancer treatments is increasing the flow of oxygen through the body and increasing alkalinity. But it is not readily apparent what all of these cancer treatments may have in common.
I have some articles on the negative health effects of fluoridation of drinking water. Among them is "couch potato syndrome" which is the cute name for a not so cute physical condition induced by ingesting too much fluoride. One of the characteristics of couch potato syndrome is an overly docile personality. Because fluorine is a proven excitotoxin, there is a hypothesis that the fluoride which is part of poisonous chemotherapy compounds may reduce the will to live among cancer patients by destroying some of their brain cells.
It has been suggested that the machine also generates a strong Reikki-like healing effect which includes correcting the body’s implementation of its DNA coding. (See Reikki discussion above.) It appears that only half an organism’s blueprint is stored in its genes. The other half is stored in the organism’s electromagnetic aura. Perhaps the machine tunes the body to match its electromagnetic design specifications.
The reality and effectiveness of photo-luminescent therapy is backed by many years of research and thorough documentation. More information can be found in the December 1997 issue of Nexus, www.kalamark.com/rife_conference, www.genesistherapy.com/index.html, www.rt66.com/~rifetech/, www.wj.net/dimshah, and www.cseti.org/bearden/aids/priore.htm.
I have listened to a demonstration and lecture on the similar "resonant frequency therapy" by James E. Bare, D.C., at the 1995 International Tesla Society Symposium. Dr. Bare later authored an article on the therapy in the Jan/Feb/Mar 1996 issue of the society’s Extraordinary Science.
One way to provide photo-luminescent therapy in the proposed resort complex would be to equip each hotel room with a photo-luminescent therapy unit. The electronics could be hidden inside a wall behind a keyed panel. A wall switch would be wired to the electronics. Guests would have the option, by simply flipping a wall switch, of using photo-luminescent therapy for attempting to treat any diseases they may have or just to feel energetic and healthy during their vacation.
A side benefit of installing photo-luminescent therapy machines in hotel rooms is that insects and spiders are irritated by the frequencies and leave the premises. The effective radius of insect control for each power level such as 250 watts or 500 watts was not known at the time of writing.
One variation would be to substitute a credit card reader and a timer for the wall switch. Then additional revenue could be earned from selling photo-luminescent therapy time which would also help pay for the equipment. A coin-operated timer could also be used but probably not without problems of currency convertibility and the extra expense of collection.
The easier to implement but less convenient way to make available photo-luminescent therapy would be to rent portable machines at the hotel’s front desk.
Some of the guests could be so impressed with the results of their using photo-luminescent therapy that additional revenues could be earned by selling photo-luminescent machines. However, the machines may need to be disassembled before shipment to certain countries such as the USA for legal reasons.
Because the resort is located in a small, independent country, realistic claims could be made about curing various diseases without offending the U.S. Government’s Food and Drug Administration. Thus the resort complex could gain an enormous competitive advantage.
Currently, photo-luminescent therapy in its various forms has not received serious study from medical scientists that it appears to deserve. People staying at the resort may be invited to participate in studies of the effects and possible benefits of photo-luminescent therapy. When they first check in, volunteers would be provided a free medical checkup to document ailments. When they leave, they would be tested again as part of a second free medical checkup. As time goes on, a data base on the medical effects, if any, of photo-luminescent therapy could be accumulated.
A demonstration virtual telemedics system to be show cased at the March 1999 annual convention of the American Telemedicine Association has been completed and funding is now being sought to support this initiative. The presentation budget has been set at $100,000, with full build out of the prototypes expected to require upwards of $250,000 over a period of six-nine months. This is the system which incorporates wireless broadband digital transceiver technology [802.11], Intel-based computer platforms, 10Base-T LAN systems, video conferencing software [H.320/ 323], digitized optical examination instruments [American Medical Devices] and a variety of FDA-certified pharmaceutical evaluation software into a single operating system. The system qualifies for Telemedicine billing under all five codifications and billing systems and has been pre-approved by Utah's Dept of Health and Family Services Division for use in remote and rural areas.
POWR/MASTR™ Industrial Engine
The commercially available POWR/MASTR™ is a high-efficiency, long-life industrial engine which is fueled by natural gas, propane or butane. A POWR/MASTR™ can be directly connected to gas company pipelines and so never needs refueling. Each POWR/MASTR™ unit can generate over 145 horsepower for mechanical power needs, or 100 kilowatts of electricity for electric power needs. POWR/MASTR™ units can be linked together in parallel and/or linked to utility company electricity to satisfy energy requirements of any size.
POWR/MASTR™ offers savings of up to 50% over other mechanical power costs, or up to 70% over utility company charges for electricity. A San Diego shopping center saves $125,000 per year in electricity costs.
POWR/MASTR™ is environmentally friendly, using only clean burning gases at a maximum rate of 9 therms/900,000 Btu/900 cubic feet per hour of natural gas. When less power is needed than 100 kilowatts or 145 horsepower, POWR/MASTR™ automatically self-adjusts to use less fuel. Operating at less than a quiet 60 dB at 20 feet, POWR/MASTR™ sounds no louder than a new car engine at idle. It also produces far less harmful exhaust emissions than a typical gasoline-fueled automotive engine. POWR/MASTR™ is fully automated and designed for 60 months of continuous use with maintenance regularly scheduled every 1,500 hours.
Each POWR/MASTR™ unit weighs 3,200 lb., and its size is 8 feet long by 5 feet wide by 6 feet high. A POWR/MASTR™ unit can be transported on its own delivery trailer and installed by one person in about four hours after site preparation. No cranes, work crews, nor special foundations are necessary. An adjustable level platform system is built-in so that no poured nor perfectly level pad is required. Controls are included at no charge to allow more than one POWR/MASTR™ unit to deliver electricity with other power generation units or in conjunction with utility company power.
The hydrosonic pump seems destined to become a billion-dollar invention with many applications. It is really a zero-pressure boiler, not a pump. The inventor has been calling it a pump so as to avoid tangling up with strict American Society of Mechanical Engineers boiler codes.
Mechanical input power rotates the shaft, and plain water is converted to steam without the need for hot surfaces. The process seems to be actually a form of fusion where collapsing microscopic bubbles momentarily create extremely high pressures and temperatures. The technical term for this phenomenon is "sono-luminescence". The energy conversion efficiency is around 130%. (To prevent confusion, it should be clearly understood that the hydrosonic pump on the macro scale does not operate at high temperatures and pressures as is the case with nuclear or fossil-fueled boilers.)
One application is to use a windmill to turn the shaft. Out of the nozzle comes steam which drives a steam turbine to produce electricity. The steam then enters a condenser from which can be obtained potable water and hot water for space heating. For remote islands, for example, the hydrosonic pump would be very useful. One utility is reportedly already looking at increasing the efficiencies of its nuclear and fossil-fueled power plants by 3 - 5 percentage points.
Nevada has large underground reservoirs of useless mineralized water. The hydrosonic pump could be the centerpiece of a large-scale scheme to generate electricity, heat and potable water.
The hydrosonic pump is actually being commercially manufactured and sold. The inventor definitely is using the correct approach in that since the pump is such a new technology, for some time he has been simply building one unit at a time in various sizes and configurations. He has been purposely restricting their sale to local installations so he can closely monitor their performance and incorporate improvements and changes into future units.e then clos
As of May 1996, he had 14 units actually installed and operating. One application is for producing clean steam on demand for a commercial laundry. Based on feedback from customers’ experience with them, he is evolving step-by-step in an organized manner towards eventual mass production of fully validated units. It seems to be much easier to obtain expansion capital for actual commercial units than "laboratory queens".
Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge Reactor
A typical flashlight’s light bulb is a glass vacuum tube where the flashlight’s batteries force current through the bulb’s filament, resulting in a power loss equal to the square of the current times the positive resistance of the filament. The power is then radiated out of the light bulb as light and heat.
Physicists have known for many years that the pulsed abnormal glow of a discharge tube has a negative resistance characteristic. What physicists have not appreciated, until the development of the PAGD reactor, was the real possibility or the knowledge of precisely how to go about extracting 'free' energy by exciting self-sustaining oscillations in the plasma discharge.
The pulsed abnormal glow discharge (PAGD) reactor (U.S. Patents 5,416,391, 5,449,989, and 5,502,354) is an over-sized glass vacuum tube which is constructed and electrically driven within a narrow range of DC voltage so that it operates with negative resistance. Because of the reactor’s negative resistance, other components with positive resistance such as light bulbs, batteries, and motors can be inserted in the circuit without drawing energy from the DC power source, up to the reactor’s maximum amount of negative resistance.
The PAGD reactor’s function is based upon heretofore unknown spontaneous emission properties of certain metals in vacuum and involves an anomalous cathode reaction force. The reactor may be conceived of as a portable vacuum battery made active only when needed.
The technology employs cold-cathode vacuum discharge plasma reactors to set up self-exciting oscillations, in the form of pulsed abnormal glow discharges triggered by auto-electronic emissions, in order to produce power. The circuit is driven from a direct current source of impedance sufficient to prevent establishment of a sustained vacuum arc discharge. In combination with a special circuit, electrical power, in excess of the input power needed for operation, can be extracted. The system, therefore, may also be referred to as an over-unity system where net energy output greatly exceeds net energy input.
The experimental data show numerous tests involving the discharge of a source bank of 12-volt cells as the powered apparatus recharges an output bank of cells and/or runs an electric motor. In one typical test run, within 20 minutes, 0.988 kilowatt-hour of energy is generated for an input of 0.258 kilowatt-hours. Power conversion gain performance efficiencies are clearly shown in the figures by data plots on a scale that runs to 1000%. One power conversion gain efficiency cited was 483%.
It seems that the PAGD reactor’s inventors have conquered the problem of electrode over-heating after long duration running of many devices built using different electrode configurations, shapes and materials. The PAGD reactor’s development is now at the point where predictably 40 megawatt-hours of energy can be delivered from something of light-weight construction that one can hold in one hand.
Imagine holding something that can deliver 2 kilowatts of electrical power output and keep going for 20,000 hours. Then ask yourself when we can expect to see self-powered electrical vehicles on our roads using somewhat larger versions of those tubes.
Unlike the chemically-assisted nuclear reaction process, which outputs low-grade heat, the PAGD reactor directly generates electricity at power voltage levels, without any utilization of cold or thermonuclear fusion principles. Another important feature of the apparatus is that it employs no radioactive compounds and generates no nuclear radiation or radioisotopes. The energy system is entirely pollution-free, self-contained and composed of readily recyclable materials. Storage of the power produced may be carried out by traditional means, be these mechanical or electrical.
At least three patents have so far been issued. One of the patents involves an associated motor drive which provides for direct electromechanical transformation of the energy accumulated within the reactor. Additional patents covering various aspects and applications of the PAGD reactor are being sought.
Energy conversion system applications for electric vehicles, stand-alone power supplies and autonomous housing are currently under development. The inventors hope that by making vehicles self-sufficient in terms of energy, the PAGD reactor will offer the possibility of bypassing massive infrastructure expansions in order to make the electric vehicle a feasible reality while solving the problem of range which currently detracts from its appeal. Other potential applications include pulsed lasers, inverters, transformer and motor circuits. The inventors are presently engaged in negotiating licensing agreements with a view to development of the applications.
Etheric Weather Engineering
Etheric weather engineering is certainly one of the more spectacular products of the international "underground" science network. Unbelievable as it may seem, what looks like an ordinary tin can or handleless frying pan slowly being turned by an electric motor, in less than a half-hour, can cause heavy rain within 10 miles under conditions of high barometric pressure. (I have a video which shows about 20 demonstrations of etheric rain making.) I personally have seen etheric weather engineering effects at least twice in Las Vegas and twice in the Midwest.
So what is the secret of this crazy thing called "etheric weather engineering"? To begin understanding this most remarkable phenomena, we first take a look at just what is the "ether":
Sound comprises of oscillating waves traveling through water, air, and solid matter. Light propagates through space also as a wavelike phenomenon having frequency and wavelength. Over a century ago, some physicists postulated that light is a form of electromagnetism which travels as an oscillating wave through a medium they termed "ether". The famous Morley-Michelson experiment around that time determined that the speed of light is constant. So therefore, it was thought, there can not be an ether.
Subsequently, physics was led on a wild goose chase. For example, the mathematics of Einstein’s famous theories of relativity are mostly based on the assumption that the speed of light is constant. Astronomers commonly believe that the universe started with a big bang and is still expanding because the speed of light is thought to be constant.
It has been claimed that the physics of electromagnetism and gravity as presently taught in academia has over 20 serious flaws. Actual measurements with modern instruments have shown that the speed of light varies with both direction and time. (Morley and Michelson erred in measuring the speed of light with both interferometers in the horizontal plane. They should have instead placed one interferometer in the horizontal plane, i.e., orthogonal to gravity, and the other interferometer in the vertical plane, i.e., parallel to gravity.) Actual measurements of the speed of light as it varies by as much as 5 miles per second over time show that the ether is not static but, as the earth travels through space, seems to surge and ebb with both time and orientation with respect to the stars.
Contemporary physics does not answer some of the fundamental questions of magnetism and gravity. For example, just how do magnets attract and repel? What is gravity? How can magnets under specialized conditions produce anti-gravity? What is inertia?
The consensus of some physicists is that two basic changes need to be made to the theory of physics. The speed of light is no longer to be assumed constant. The other change is that admitting the existence of the ether helps to explain many physical phenomena not otherwise satisfactorily explainable by conventional mainstream physics. For example, some physicists are now claiming that the earth’s relatively weak gravitational "pull" is actually the ether pushing objects such as the moon, satellites, and people into the shadow formed by the earth on the ether.
Etheric energy, also sometimes called "zero point electromagnetic radiation" and "vacuum field energy", is known as an energy that fills the fabric of all space. Technically, the etheric energy results from an electric flux which flows orthogonally to our perceived dimension or reality.
The energy density of the ether is essentially incomprehensible. The mass equivalence of etheric energy has been calculated by physicists to be on the order of 1093 (may not be correct) grams per cubic centimeter using Einstein’s famous equation E = mc2. To put etheric energy density in perspective, Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman and one of Einstein’s protégés, John Wheeler, have calculated that there is more than enough energy in the volume of a coffee cup to evaporate all the world’s oceans! We fail to easily recognize this immense energy source as it is analogous to trying to weigh a beaker of water underneath the ocean’s surface.
Dan A. Davidson recently published a book "Shape Power: A Treatise on How Form Converts Universal Aether into Electromagnetic and Gravitic Forces and Related Discoveries in Gravitational Physics" reporting on his many years of measuring and studying the effects of the geometry of objects on the ether. In his book he explains how geometric forms, for example the famous "pyramid power", convert etheric energy into electromagnetic and gravitic forces.
Etheric weather engineering researchers not only claim but have demonstrated many times that precisely machined metal objects similar in shape to cones, tin cans, handle-less frying pans, etc., when slowly turned by an electric motor (but not simply rotated on the axis of their hollow interiors), bore holes in the ether and cause weather upsets and changes. Only by linking the enormously high energy density of the ether with etheric hole boring can the disproportionately immense leverage of small objects upon the weather be understood.
The foregoing is referred to as "active" etheric weather engineering. There is also a "passive" version which generally comprises of a box about two feet high, wide, and deep. The tops, bottoms, and sides are about an inch or so thick and comprise of a thick layer of electrical insulation sandwiched between two thin layers of an electrically conductive material such as aluminum foil. Pieces of a wrecked RV camper’s shell sometimes have been used.
Along the four inside edges around the bottom of the box are four magnets. Each magnet is placed in the center of each inside edge. To make rain, the polarities of the magnets are set one way, and to cause fair weather, the magnets are reversed. (I have actually seen this demonstrated in the Midwest.) On the center of the bottom of the box is set a truncated concrete cone about a foot high and a little over a half-foot in diameter. The concrete contains some special materials including mono-atomic gold and is sometimes wetted.
I stuck my head inside the box and could detect a faint mustiness. The experimenter thinks there is something like 20 megawatts of etheric power vertically streaming through the box.
The weather control box is termed "passive" because it takes about a half-day for the weather to react in a large circle of several miles in radius as compared to the half-hour for several miles in radius of weather to react to the rotating metal objects. In the awesome demonstration of the weather control box I saw in the Midwest, an otherwise cloudless day went completely cloudy from horizon to horizon in about an hour, after a buildup of several hours in the morning. I could even see lines or bands in the clouds that were possibly caused by the horizontal aluminum sidings of the garage inside of which the weather control box was located. Then the magnets were reversed, and the clouds had dissipated by the end of the afternoon. I was overwhelmed by seeing, for the first time, etheric weather engineering. It was simply magnificent.
It has been suggested that the precision of etheric weather engineering could possibly be increased by using both passive and active forms of etheric weather control in a mode of operation similar to alternately pressing the gas and brake pedals of a vehicle.
Some of America’s Indian tribes were able to break up droughts by dancing counter-clockwise around a circle, or to stop rain by dancing clockwise around a circle. To illustrate, the summer of 1931 Nevada was suffering through a drought. An elderly Shoshone Indian, Wagon Jack, suggested to the tribal members living in the vicinity of Austin, Nevada that they devote some time to a rain dance. With considerable skepticism, Indians from all over central Nevada showed up beginning August 14 for continuous rain dancing plus of course feasting and political meetings. On August 19, the skies clouded over and rain began coming down in torrents. After four days of heavy rainfall, flooding caused extensive damage. (Nevada Historical Society)
I remember reading another story when during a severe two-year California drought during the mid-1970’s, an environmental group in San Francisco just for fun decided to hold a rain dance in nearby Marin County. They had to cut it short because it started raining! Of course, I didn’t understood then what was really happening and why.
Etheric weather engineering research Trevor James Constable has produced a video "Etheric Weather Engineering" on his weather engineering experiments. Thomas J. Brown has authored a book on etheric weather engineering titled "Loom of the Future: The Weather Engineering Work of Trevor James Constable".
It was reported in Brown’s book that in September 1994, Hurricane Iniki was bearing down on Honolulu. Constable’s ship happened to be located between the hurricane and Honolulu so he was able to divert Iniki. Unfortunately, the hurricane ended up damaging the island of Kauai instead.
Installing local etheric weather engineering capabilities, probably under contract to an etheric weather engineering researcher, should be a relatively trivial expense. One weather control machine or box should be able to cover the entire resort area. By being able to cause rain or sun on demand, the resort project could achieve a competitive advantage.
I do not know whether local weather control, set to sun, would be sufficient to break up a hurricane should one approach the resort complex. It is possible that weather control machines would have to be installed on ships or planes and located in the path of the hurricane such as happened with Iniki. Being able to break up or at least divert hurricanes should noticeably reduce insurance costs.
Testatika Free Energy Machine
The Testatika free energy machine was developed over a 20-year research period in Switzerland. It resembles a Wimshurst electrostatic generator commonly seen in high school physics labs. Other documents may refer to it as the "Swiss M-L converter" or "Thesta-Distatica." The inventor of this superb machine, Paul Baumann, claims its running principle was found by studying the effects of lightning.
Testatika not only runs on its own energy but produces also a huge amount of excess power. A video shows a demonstrator unit producing at least 3 kilowatts of power. Yet the machine is only about 70 cm wide, 40 cm deep, and about 60 cm tall. It delivers DC voltage ranging from 270 to 320 volts, only depending on the dryness of the air. At this voltage it can supply at least 10 amperes of DC current.
Testatika is not a perpetuum mobile, but an energy machine that collects its "free" energy from the charged and ionized air particles. Some technological tricks are implemented to overcome the normal drag-resistance of a conventional Wimshurst machine, which is still the secret of the Swiss group. However, progress is being made by several researchers in the underground science network in deducing and explaining the basic mechanisms of this remarkable machine.
The initial high voltage, at high frequency, is produced by twin counter-revolving electrostatic disks made from magnetic stainless steel. The magnetic disk segments provide an electromagnetic speed control for the disks, while functioning as electrostatic elements to provide the very high voltage.
The solid-state amplification subsystem consists of polarized sections of barium-iron permanent magnets with multiple coil arrays, as first introduced by Hans Coler in Germany during the 1940’s. This subsystem increases the amperage level about 20 times from the 150 watts from the twin electrostatic disks up to about 3000 watts at the output terminals.
An independent feedback subsystem provides the electromagnetic force to power a small DC motor to revolve the twin electrostatic disks continuously. This arrangement consists of two horseshoe magnets with coil sets wound fully around each magnet leg. This feedback method provides that the Testatika free-energy machine is a fully standalone system, with no external power input. Once the two disks are turned by hand, they continue to revolve on their own, producing free energy.
The Testatika machines (some smaller units also exist which only deliver about 200-300 watts) are not yet mass-production type models. They are still laboratory prototype units, although they are built with a very good craftsmanship. No maintenance is required with these units.
Besides powering a Swiss commune of 3,000 people, at least four Testatika free energy machines are reportedly in operation in Palm Springs, California, Canada, Florida, and another western state. The parts and materials for one powerful enough to electrify a house are estimated to cost about $2,000. Two commercial sizes reportedly have been developed. The smaller unit weighs about 50 pounds and generates 4 to 5 kilowatts. The larger unit has two disks 3 meters in diameter rotating at 12,000 RPM and generates 30 kilowatts.
More on the Testakica
GeoExchange Heat Pump
GeoExchange Heat Pump
A refrigerator is a one-way heat pump that cools the inside of the box by removing heat, which is then pumped someplace else. Cold air is not pumped into refrigerators.
Conventional air conditioners pump hot air from the inside of a home into the outside air. Because the outside air is already so hot in the summer, the difficulty of pumping hot air into air that is already hot results in low efficiency and high energy costs.
GeoExchange Heat Pumps are electrically-powered devices that use the natural heat storage ability of the earth or the earth’s ground water to heat and cool a structure. They are being promoted by the Geothermal Heat Pump Consortium which claims that they can reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% or more over traditional air conditioners.
At the Bella Vivente subdivision of Lake Las Vegas, Henderson, Nevada, their GeoExchange system pumps heat into and out of homes with one loop of pipe which is connected to the lake. Residents save an average of $150 per month in heating and air conditioning bills. Other advantages include eliminating noisy and unattractive outdoor condensers and cooling towers.
The following technologies may not be commercially available at this time. However, they may have potential applications for the resort project.
A new method of treating sewage has been patented by a retired federal government employee.
This simple process reportedly incinerates garbage, sawdust, and wood chips at such an unbelievably high temperature that even thermocouples at 3200 degrees burn up. So little odor and smoke is produced that a prototype was tested indoors. Very little waste is left behind which needs to be trucked away. The high-grade heat from this type of incinerator can be used for generating electricity and producing process heat.
About 20 years ago, I read an unforgettable article on Hong Kong’s comprehensive and efficient food system. I tried in vain a couple of years ago to find the article or similar information.
As I remember it, the restaurants and institutions in Hong Kong carefully scrape waste food off plates and bowls into bins. The bins are trucked to pig farms. The waste from the pigs is dumped into fish ponds. I think there was another step or two involved in all this. It was impressive how so much additional food could be raised in Hong Kong rather than allowed to go to waste.
I propose that a similar scheme be implemented in the resort complex. In addition, there are refinements that could possibly be made as a result of some research I conducted some time ago on an "aquaponic food factory". Below is the original write-up of the aquaponic food factory:
Merger of tilapia culture with soil-less culture for plants. 220-foot long, 16-foot wide polyethylene sheet-enclosed building with round fish tank in one end. Plants are grown in 2-foot-square plastic foam pads floating in long shallow water tank. The plants start as seedlings at one end of the tank, moved along as they grow, and harvested 3-4 times per week at the other end when mature.
What was difficult to perfect was balancing the chemistry of both tanks as nutrients and water cycle between the tanks. Unskilled labor maintain and harvest several times per week consistently high quality, clean, undamaged, organically-grown produce and tilapia.
No weeding, hoeing, tilling, spraying, hail insurance, etc., are necessary. Water consumption is 50 times less than required by dirt farms. Productivity per acre is about 10 times per acre of dirt farming. A head of lettuce, for example, costs about 5 to 9 cents to produce and brings a higher price than dirt-raised lettuce.
(End of write-up.)
Some of the claims of the above aquaponic food factory write-up may have to be adjusted, particularly in regards to production cost and insect control.
For a while, a group of us were considering installing a similar system in central Nevada except that the project was to be expanded in three respects: One change was to take advantage of the plentiful pure cold water at the site and begin with raising trout and salmon. The overflow from the trout and salmon tanks was then to be piped to tanks of tilapia and shrimp which are not as fussy about water quality and require warmer temperatures.
The second change was to increase productivity and lower costs by taking advantage of the cheap energy to be provided by plasma-injected transmutation thermal reactors and other new sources of energy. Also, a company we are associated with would supply mineral fertilizer from the world's richest mineral deposit of trace elements.
The third change was, in conjunction with the aquaponic food factory, to build a prototype 21st century city for the workers, taking advantage of our access to a long list of advanced technologies. An eminently qualified architect had been selected as the architectural consultant for this unique real estate development. The architect in turn was understood to have access to an extensive network of technologists and financiers. New ideas in construction, community layout, sewage treatment, transportation, communication, alternative medicine, entertainment, recreation, education, landscaping, and home gardening were to be explored.
The site was considered to be ideally suited for the world’s first large-scale aquaponic food-production facility with ultimately thousands of acres of greenhouses and fish tanks capable of supplying several western states, western Canada, and Japan with fish and fresh produce.
Some of these ideas and plans could be adopted to help supply the resort complex with locally raised fresh produce and fish. There are islands in the east Caribbean which already have greenhouses supplying fresh produce to passing cruise ships as well as local markets.
Installing photo-luminescent therapy machines in the greenhouses offers two potential benefits of improved plant growth and insect control. There has been some indication of improved plant growth in the presence of the machines. Insects and spiders are irritated by the frequencies and so therefore would be repelled some unknown effective radius. Paybacks are elimination of insect damage, eliminating the cost of insecticide spraying, and easier certification as organically grown produce which in turn usually brings higher prices. One potential problem is the repelling of pollinating bees.
Microporous Solid Gel
Ultrasonic energy blends and hardens gel of polyester resin and water into very hard and strong sheets. Water content varies from 5% to 95%. Markets include on-site fabricated wall panels, plastic pallets, boat flotation inserts, insulation, and packaging.
Computerized Fiber Optic School Network
One dozen to four dozen junior and senior high schools in each large metropolitan area were to be linked with fiber-optic cables into a single network with an average cost of $100,000,000. The recent advent of the Internet possibly offers drastic cost reductions.
The network's three-layer computer system would comprise of a network coordinating and scheduling computer as the top layer, an administrative computer in each school as the middle layer, and personal computers as the bottom layer. The network's customized software would include network management and coordinating functions for the system manager, two layers of software for the teachers to support 100 different functions, and 25 different functions for the students, only one of which is computer-assisted instruction. Each personal computer would have a monitor capable of also displaying telecast or recorded classes.
The typically huge scale of a school network would economically justify the simultaneous teaching in parallel of all week-long segments of each course year round with no seasonal constraints. Segmented courses would still include the standard features of conventional courses such as classes, graded examinations, and academic load standards. Short quizzes on each segment with pass/fail grading would provide quality control. Other nonstandard features of segmented courses include modified versions of the project management tools PERT and CPM, unique statistical techniques for selecting series of two or three local/televised classes for weekly scheduling, nearly unlimited self-pacing, student interest groups, and optimum utilization of the superlearning technique.
The computerized fiber optic school network is my own design. The proposal contains approximately 180 pages and describes several small-scale research projects which should be funded in varying amounts to gain additional information on its workability. Marketing such a radical and complicated program to bureaucratic metropolitan school districts presents an unusually difficult marketing challenge.
The country has a large city near the resort complex which could be a good place to build a prototype network. Its schools may be much more flexible and open-minded than American schools. A multipurpose optic fiber cable could be laid between this large city and the resort complex. Then a satellite campus in the resort complex could be a part of the school network and provide high-technology education to the children of the people working and living at the resort complex.
An optional feature of the school network would be a "virtual reality occupation simulator". There ought to be a huge market, but the technical requirements for such a machine appear almost impossible to meet. The same machine would have to simulate for example a dentist pulling a tooth, laying an oil pipeline across Siberia, welding, carpentry, drafting, the mechanics of a stockbroker buying and selling stock, golf course maintenance, valet parking, etc.
After a person is wired up and fitted with position sensors, pressure actuators, etc., the computer would then have to generate an initial mathematical model of the person’s geometry and coordinates. As the person moves and reacts to pressure, sounds, and visual images, the computer would have to instantaneously respond accordingly with signals to the pressure actuators, earphones, goggles, etc.
So a student "drilling" a virtual reality tooth in a virtual reality dentist’s office would feel and hear the vibration as he or she moves the drill around the virtual reality patient’s tooth. There would have to be safety limits built into the software so that the student doesn’t receive unvirtual reality injuries from, for example, getting bit in the fingers by a virtual reality patient who suffers an unexpected virtual reality epileptic seizure!
The required computer would have to be cheap and yet be in the supercomputer class with an enormous instant access data storage device. No such machine now exists. However, ACC Labs expects to commercialize within a few years several computer technologies which together should be able to comfortably meet the extreme requirements of the virtual reality occupation simulator.
Twelve of its 90-gigabit transcapacitor (T-CAP) storage devices will be able to store over one trillion characters (bytes) in a space the size of a flashlight battery. One variation would be a "neural network array" based on 24 billion software configurable nodes.
ACC Labs’ liquid addressable memory device (LQ-RAM) would have a capacity of about 10,000 to 100,000 times the density of today’s S-DRAM DIMM memory, with longer refresh rates, lower power consumption, and a much higher speed - on an order of 3-800 gigahertz cycle times and even faster. Using both T-CAPs and LQ-RAMs, the entire contents of the Internet’s World Wide Web can be stored in a desk-sized storage device, and then retransmitted in a few moments.
Torsion Field-Based Communications
Practically unknown to Western science, several groups of Russian scientists have been developing torsion field physics and apparatus in secret for over three decades. A torsion field is a scalar product of two electromagnetic fields under special conditions. For example, a torsion field can be generated at the interface between two magnetic fields sweeping past each other. Torsion fields come in at least three different types – E fields, S fields, and G fields.
Russian astronomers have determined that torsion fields are transmitted at a speed of one billion times the speed of light. Physicists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have transmitted Mozart’s 40th Symphony at 4.7 times the speed of light using torsion field generators and torsion field sensors. The European physics laboratory CERN has determined that torsion field information can be transmitted through 20 miles of mountain without attenuation.
Several first-ever torsion field patent applications have been submitted. A unique design has been developed for a counter-rotating torsion field generator based on a newly patented micro-solenoid technology, counter-rotating mono-polar magnetic plates, mono-chromatic standing wave lasers, and some scalar parallel processor technologies from the Swiss Institute of Technology in Zurich. A commercial version is scheduled for demonstration by late 2000 which will be able to universally transmit information through the entire earth at many times the speed of light with a bandwidth wide enough to allow transmission of three-dimensional holographic video on 16.7 million separate channels.
The grand design for a working model of a highly directional and very inexpensive gravimetric sensor device has been developed. Its purpose will be to provide people with a way to detect large objects in space and plot their position in real time. This will make it possible to develop a baseline from which we can then extrapolate the rate at which this information is conveyed via transverse gravitational waves - expected to be greater than 1,000,000,000 times the speed of light. This will provide a cogent baseline to support the concept of superluminal velocities in data transmission via torsion field devices. This project could use some capital - probably in the $75-100K range and has the potential to set a whole new standard for astronomical observation techniques.
Small-Scaled Energy Production
Large-scaled centralized electrical generation facilities typically require costly fuel, pollute, use up large areas of land for generators and power lines, are unsafe in the case of nuclear, have limited operating lifetimes of a few decades, and inherently subject large regions to blackouts. The country where the resort complex is to be located currently is expanding its electricity generating capacity by building large-scaled fossil-fueled power plants.
Small-scaled decentralized electrical generating units ideally do not require any costly fuel, do not pollute, only require a square meter or two of floor space, are standalone and do not interlock with a power grid, and are dependable.
What are referred to as "renewable" energy sources are receiving much attention and R&D support. They include producing and using hydrogen as a fuel, fuel cells, solar, and wind. Some types are already in use such as windmills, solar water heaters, and solar box ovens for cooking. (I myself own and use a solar box oven with excellent results, particularly with baking delicious potatoes.) While the intent is laudable and much clever engineering has been accomplished, solar and wind, for example, are inherently not completely satisfactory sources of energy.
The international science network seems to focus mostly on developing unconventional new sources of energy. The basis of many of their devices is extracting energy in some fashion from the ether (see Etheric Weather Engineering above).
The hydrosonic pump (see above) is a rare example of an unconventional new source of energy which is actually being commercially manufactured and sold. The pulsed abnormal glow discharge reactor is one of many examples of unconventional new sources of energy that, to my knowledge, are not currently being commercialized.
The country’s people may be interested in starting up a massive new industry specializing in researching and commercializing new sources of energy, particularly etheric energy. They could follow a path similar to Taiwan becoming a strong computer manufacturer, for example, even though Taiwan is merely an out-of-the-way island.
Since such an organization is a new concept with me, what follows are some thoughts I have come up with:
Our first task should be to try to define somewhat just what is it the new organization is supposed to research and commercialize. The mission of Ether and Charge Cluster Engineering, Inc., (which seems as good a name as any other) would be to take advantage of this small country’s freedom from scientific dogma and pioneering entrepreneurial spirit in researching and commercializing applications of etheric energy, the existence of which is pooh-poohed by practically all physicists.
The potential applications of etheric energy are diverse. Major categories I can think of are:
Over-unity gain energy conversion by rotating magnets and electronic circuits
Plasma-injected transmutation for radioactivity amelioration, thermal energy production,
and manufacture of scarce elements out of more plentiful elements
High-density charge clusters
Radiovoltaic, petrovoltaic, and super-capacitor batteries
Self-powered electric vehicles
Niches in agricultural technology
Medical treatment devices
Self-powered heating, air conditioning, and ventilation equipment
Stand-alone power supplies for appliances, office equipment, instruments, etc.
Electrical power generation
Ether and Charge Cluster Engineering, Inc., should establish a close relationship with the local university’s engineering departments for two reasons: One would be to build up, organize, and document the theoretical underpinnings of ether engineering. The other would be to train and inspire young engineers in the exciting new field of ether engineering.
There was a similar situation during the 1950’s and 1960’s where Stanford University’s electrical engineering faculty helped start the computer and semiconductor companies of the now fabulously successful Silicon Valley. I see a similarly wealthy "Ether Valley" starting up in the country’s capital city. It could be a sound business decision for several reasons:
PacifiCorp Holdings, Inc., an Oregon public utility holding company and the third largest power utility west of the Mississippi River, has already set a precedent by investing $1,000,000 in Blacklight Power, Inc., of Malvern, Pennsylvania. Blacklight Power is developing an exotic new source of clean energy from ordinary water. Either an electrolytic cell or gaseous potassium ions in a vacuum compress hydrogen atoms into lower-energy-state hydrogen atoms called "hydrinos". When the hydrinos are formed, energy is released which in magnitude is between chemical and nuclear energy. Blacklight has ambitious plans for retrofitting fossil-fueled and nuclear power plants.
Blacklight is developing a 100-kilowatt generator which can power a car 100,000 miles on a tank of water. Blacklight Power, Inc., also claims on its Web site that it is developing a 10-kilogram battery which can supply 150 horsepower for 1,000 miles. Parked in a garage, it would seem that the car’s battery charger could feed electricity back into the electric power grid and help pay for the car. However, generators in homes and small businesses pose a safety problem for power company workers who normally assume the power is off from the central generating stations when there is a blackout.
The price of Blacklight Power’s stock in private offerings has increased from $.75/share in 1991 to $1,500/share in 1996 (not publicly listed). A recent stock offering sold $5,000,000 in one week and may close at $10,000,000. Because energy is one of the world’s largest industries, Blacklight Power offers an example of how lucrative a validated new source of energy can be.
As a public service, I would be happy to work part-time as an advisor to Ether and Charge Cluster Engineering, Inc. Film Funding, Inc., for whom I consult, is experienced at incorporating new Nevada corporations and has worked with many startup companies.
I am acquainted with many of the key scientists and inventors who have done so much to create physical etheric devices as well as develop ether physics. I think I can easily line up an advisory board of highly qualified technical consultants.
There seems to be a high likelihood of productive ether engineering research that could be accomplished for two or three more decades. The initial emphasis of Ether and Charge Cluster Engineering, Inc., should be to commercialize an existing inventory of devices and technologies that are at least close to being ready to market and to which Ether and Charge Cluster Engineering, Inc., could acquire licenses and rights. It should be reminded that commercialization of any inventions is contingent upon acquisition to patents, licenses, rights, territories, application fields, etc.
I am certain that a modest amount of advertising in publications which cover the ether and charge cluster engineering fields such as New Energy News, Electrifying Times, Journal of New Energy, Exotic Research, Planetary Association of Clean Energy, Space Energy Journal, Nexus, and Infinite Energy - Cold Fusion and New Energy Technology would attract additional inventors.
However, it is crucial that Ether and Charge Cluster Engineering, Inc., first establishes a reputation for being fair and responsible when negotiating with inventors for the rights to their inventions. It is also crucial that Ether and Charge Cluster Engineering, Inc., recruits competent staff not only for engineering and management, but also for evaluating the reality and economic worth of ether-related inventions.
The human species has laboriously pulled an impressively diverse mix of new energy technologies out of the dark hole of its ignorance. (I have counted about 50 new sources of energy in this report.) Sometime in the future, Ether and Charge Cluster Engineering, Inc., could conceivably find a particular energy technology it has commercialized in competition with some other energy technology. By simultaneously commercializing a variety of ether-related energy technologies, I am confident that profitable niches in the immense energy business as well as applications of etheric energy to industries unrelated to energy production can be found for many years to come.
What follows is a sampling of energy inventions - at least nearly all of which could be candidates as small-scaled energy production units and, in some cases, even as off-grid electricity generators. Please keep in mind that some may require additional development and/or verification.
High-Density Charge Cluster Technology. Nearly solid-state electrical energy converter (U.S. Patent 5,018,180) with a stable over-unity power conversion gain of approximately 5. The gain can be cranked up to a maximum of approximately 30 but then loses stability. A fax sent August 1996 reported that it now "appears capable of providing 1 kilowatt of thermal energy plus 1 kilowatt of electrical output per cubic inch with a power supply (small) and heat exchanger". The high-density charge cluster device also offers ease of manufacture as well as compactness. It is thought that this new technology is so fundamental that ultimately 1,000 doctorate theses could be researched and written by academia. For example, one university is researching flat-panel displays based on high-density charge cluster technology. High-density charge cluster technology appears to be a credible candidate for an advanced self-powered electric vehicle’s on-board battery charger.
Low-Energy Nuclear Transmutation - A Primer for Non-Physicists. The physics of high-density charge cluster technology can be explained somewhat by the following which was written primarily for non-scientists. Low-energy nuclear transmutation is thought by some to be the basis for these technologies mentioned elsewhere in this compilation of advanced technologies: pulsed abnormal glow discharge reactor, cold fusion reactor with thermal-to-electric conversion, fiber-based cold fusion power cell, hybrid cold-fusion hydrogen reactor, and gas-phase catalytic fusion.
Atoms comprise of negatively charged electrons whirling around a relatively small nucleus of neutrons and positively charged protons. Protons have a mass 1836 times the mass of electrons. A neutron is a combination of an electron and a proton with zero net electrostatic charge. An atom’s number of protons and its equal number of electrons determine its type of element. Only when a positive ion (such as a proton or nucleus of a helium atom) penetrates an atom’s nucleus does the atomic nucleus become another element (or another isotope of the same element) or becomes unstable and splits (fissions) into two or more elements.
For decades, physicists have assumed that changing (transmuting) elements always requires high energies. Elaborately expensive machinery was required to accelerate a positively charged particle of less than atomic size to a high enough energy to overcome the electrostatic repulsion of an atom’s nucleus and penetrate its interior.
The inaccurately named "cold fusion" is only one of several types of physical phenomena which indicate the existence of a mechanism by which elements could be changed to other elements without seemingly requiring very high energies. However, the secret of cold fusion’s excess heat had remained a mystery until September 13, 1996 when Kenneth Shoulders explained how the fracturing of palladium loaded with hydrogen (deuterons) could produce high-density charge clusters and cause nuclear reactions. Based on this evidence and on the pioneering work of Rod Neal and Stan Gleeson, a trio of physicists, Hal Fox, Robert W. Bass, and Shang-Xian Jin, finally deduced a more complete theory of the nature of the mechanism which extends beyond the discovery of cold fusion. The magnitude of their fundamental scientific discovery can best be appreciated by considering that Hal Fox’s Fusion Information Center, Inc., has collected over 3,000 papers on cold fusion since its discovery in 1989 without anyone being able to offer a complete understanding of just how cold fusion works.
What follows is a simplified explanation of their remarkable concept using an analogy of electrons as ping pong balls and protons as bowling balls. Visualize a room with one wall as the positive plate connected to the positive terminal of a battery, and the opposite wall as the negative plate connected to the battery’s negative terminal. Each ping pong ball is negatively charged and when released at the negative wall, electrostatic repulsion/attraction will cause the ping pong ball to fly across the room to the positive wall. Each bowling ball is positively charged and when released at the positive wall, it will roll slowly in the opposite direction across the room to the negative wall.
Both the ping pong ball and the bowling ball have an equal but opposite electrostatic charge. So therefore they both draw the same amount of electrical energy from the battery as they fly or roll from one wall to the opposite wall. But because the ping pong ball is so much lighter than the bowling ball, the ping pong ball will strike the opposite wall at a much greater speed than the bowling ball.
Now assume that 1,000,000 ping pong balls are released as a cluster at the negative wall. (At a high enough density, electrons will forget their mutual electrostatic repulsion and cluster in the same manner as ball lightning. Mother Nature sometimes pulls weird tricks.) Embedded in the ping pong ball cluster are 10 bowling balls. Because there are so many more negatively charged ping pong balls, the positively charged bowling balls are going to stick with the ping pong balls and ignore the attraction of the negative wall and the repulsion of the positive wall. So therefore the bowling balls hitch a free ride along with the ping pong balls. When the bowling balls hit the positive wall along with the ping pong balls at the same speed as the ping pong balls, the bowling balls will hit the positive wall with enormously greater energies than if they had hit the negative wall, rolling slowly alone, in the opposite direction.
In the same manner, protons (and other types of positive ions) in "low-energy" nuclear reactions are hurled into the nucleus of atoms by their "piggy-back" ride on high-density electron charge clusters with sufficient energy to split or transmute atoms. This mechanism apparently is the secret of cold fusion’s excess heat, eliminating radioactivity, transmutation of common elements into scarce elements, and powerful new atom smashers small enough for college physics laboratories. If the new theory holds up to scrutiny by other physicists, it might win a Nobel prize in physics.
Cold Fusion Reactor with Thermal-to-Electric Conversion. These are small reactors similar to electrolytic cells which produce more thermal energy than their electrical energy input. Power gains have reportedly been measured as high as several hundred. When atoms are being transmuted under specialized low-energy conditions, thermal energy is released. The heat can be directly converted to electricity. The electricity could then be transmitted to another geographically separate site and used to power two or more reactors. Reactors could in theory be cascaded indefinitely. Two drawbacks of cold fusion are the requirement for water and the need to occasionally replace electrodes. Some cold fusion researchers have changed the terminology to "low-energy nuclear transmutation".
Hybrid Cold-Fusion Hydrogen Reactor. This reactor is intended to be an economical super-efficient heater for homes and as a hot water heater. The device is so new that its potential ultimate electrical input-to-thermal output conversion gain is yet to be experimentally determined. Applications could include heating homes and other buildings, greenhouses, and fish tanks. The electrodes are made of nickel. Because the country has nickel deposits, it could manufacture its own hybrid cold fusion hydrogen reactors.
Gas-Phase Catalytic Fusion. Activated carbon catalysts are loaded with various precious metals (by weight, in the range of 0.1% to 0.5%). Palladium works best so far. When these catalysts are heated, considerable excess heat is produced reliably when such catalysts are exposed to several atmospheres of heavy hydrogen gas (deuterium gas). Pairs of deuterium atoms are fused to produce waste helium-4 atoms plus abundant clean heat. No lethal radiation is released. One cubic kilometer of ocean water contains enough deuterium that when catalytically fused, the energy released equals the chemical combustion energy in all of the earth’s known oil reserves. With suitable insulation, the process, once started, is self-heating. Temperatures can rise well above the boiling temperature of water. Engineered with efficient heat exchangers, thermal/electrical energy generators can be built in sizes for applications ranging from mobile homes to large centralized generating stations. No electrolysis is involved nor are finicky electrodes required as with some other types of low-energy nuclear transmutation devices. However, the device’s requirement for rare precious metals such as palladium could hinder widespread use.
Fiber-Based Cold Fusion Power Cell. This is a cold fusion reactor which is highly competitive with the Patterson Power CellÔ . Patents have been applied for. Demonstration products could be manufactured and prototypes readied for distribution within six months after funding. International Nickel Company is considered a strong strategic partner. (The resort’s country has nickel deposits.)
Light-Polarizing Photovoltaic Film. The light-polarizing photovoltaic film known as LUMELOID™ is a stretch-oriented polymer film about 0.3 microns thick which mimics photosynthesis. Light energy is absorbed in a molecular antenna which converts it to electron energy. The electron energy is then rectified by a molecular tunnel diode comprising an electron donor, an insulating space and an electron acceptor. Voltage and current is generated in the plane of the film parallel to the stretch axis.
Conventional silicon photocells are 25% efficient in theory, but in practice attain only 4-10%. The silicon concentrator cell theoretically has a 32% efficiency, but in practice has reached only 15%, and is too expensive.
LUMELOID™ has a theoretical efficiency of 72%. Initially its efficiency is expected to be comparable to existing photocells. However, because of the film’s high theoretical efficiency, with further R & D, LUMELOID™ is expected to soon surpass conventional photocell efficiency. More importantly, the low cost per watt of LUMELOID™ represents a tremendous cost decrease over presently available sources of solar energy and would facilitate its early acceptance in the energy market.
The projected cost of the basic LUMELOID™ thin film is $1.00 per square meter, and the assembly which comprises a LUMELOID™ film on a substrate with microelectronics circuitry, is about $5.00 per square meter. Its capital investment cost is about 30¢ per watt. This is a fraction of all conventional electric energy producing technologies. The capital cost of fossil fuel generation from large power plants is over $1.50 per watt, nuclear energy is more than $6.00 per watt, and present semiconductor photovoltaic devices are more than $4.00 per watt.
LUMELOID™ will be available in rolls at low cost, affording easy transportation, and any amount of power during sunlight hours by just rolling it out flat on any surface. Eventually with the development of QUENSOR™, which is like a very thin battery (see below), a combined LUMELOID™-QUENSOR™ sheet may be spread out on a roof or on the ground, and will provide electric power day and night, available on demand.
"Diad" is an acronym for donor-insulator-acceptor-device which acts as a diode. Molecular diads have been chemically synthesized. LUMELOID™ incorporates diads in a stretch-oriented electrically conductive polarized film. The linear polarizing molecule in the film acts as antennae to absorb a resolved component of the energy of the light photons in the plane of the film. Diads are essential in LUMELOID™ to convert the energized electrons to unidirectional (DC) electric power.
When two polarized films are positioned with their stretch axes perpendicular, light is almost completely absorbed. Using two crossed films with electrodes connected in series or parallel, ordered diads in LUMELOID™ enable the conversion of light to electric power at 72% theoretical efficiency. This principle was demonstrated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory by converting microwave to DC electric power using rectifying antennae at 82% efficiency.
Femto Diode Photovoltaic Glass Sheet. The LEPCON™ femto diode concept is similar in principle to LUMELOID™, which provides a technology mimicking photosynthesis, absorbing light energy with a molecular antennae structure, and rectifying the electron energy by the known phenomena called electron tunneling. In contrast to LUMELOID™, however, LEPCON™ comprises the durable materials of sub-micron metal on a glass substrate sheet. (A "femto" is one quadrillionth (10-15)).)
A device for fabricating LEPCON™ photovoltaic sheets in commercial production is called "Supersebter", an acronym for Super Submicron Electron Beamwriter. The Supersebter utilizes 100,000 rows and 100,000 columns to position 10 billion electron emitters on a square meter sheet by a lithographic process. This process produces 10 billion electron beams simultaneously to write the nanostructure patterns of femto diodes on the sheet. A square-meter LEPCON™ photovoltaic sheet could be produced in twenty seconds at a cost of about 50¢ per watt and a lifetime expectancy of over 50 years.
LEPCON™ panels could be utilized by utility companies in solar farms. It has been calculated that LEPCON™ panels covering a 150-kilometer x 150-kilometer area in a desert region could produce over 250,000 MW of electric power, enough for most of the United States.
This successful commercial fabrication of the LEPCON™ femto diode structure should lead to many other advanced nanostructure devices. For example, computer circuitry could be miniaturized 100-fold, efficient laser lighting devices could be produced, and vast improvements could be made on high-definition 2D to 3D TV flat-panel displays. (The 1993 Alvin Marks patent on a monomolecular resist significantly increases the resolution of the nanostructures.)
Quantum High Energy Density Storage or Retrieval Device. Essentially a very thin battery, the solid-state Quantum High Energy Density Storage or Retrieval Device (QUENSOR™) has an energy density of about 1-15 kilowatt-hours/kilogram, which is comparable to gasoline, or more. A fundamentally new principle and a new method of manufacture is employed.
Electric energy is stored or retrieved from quantum dipole electric fields throughout the volume of the QUENSOR™ film. Electric energy is stored in the QUENSOR™ film by charging the dipole electric fields from an electric energy source. Electric energy is retrieved from a QUENSOR™ film by discharging the dipole electric fields and supplying the energy to a load. Electric breakdown in the film is avoided because positive and negative electric charges in the film are balanced everywhere. Busbars attached to metal layers are connected to terminals for charging or discharging the QUENSOR™ film.
A composite photovoltaic LUMELOID™ and QUENSOR™ panel may be used for the storage or retrieval of solar-electric energy day or night on demand.
Eight patents protecting the LUMELOID™, LEPCON™, and QUENSOR™ technologies have been issued, and additional patent applications have been filed.
Buried Contact Multijunction Thin Film Solar Cell. In the past, to produce high-performance solar cells, expensive high-quality solar cell material were required. This new solar cell approach produces high efficiency cells but with the use of much lower quality material than previously possible; material 100-1,000 times lower in quality than the worst presently used in commercial silicon cells. Using this approach, the major material costs in making the modules becomes the cost of the glass used in the modules.
The approach involves the deposition of a very thin layer of silicon upon the glass cover. During deposition, fluctuations are introduced in the properties of these layers to produce a multilayer structure. Three separate ideas are combined:
The first new idea is to use a multilayer structure, which provides the tolerance to the use of low quality material; material 100-1,000 times poorer than the worst used in present commercial cells. The second is using a laser grooved approach which allows correct contacting to each of the layers in the cell. The third is the automatic series interconnection of the cells which results from the laser grooving approach and greatly simplifies module fabrication, contributing to low processing costs.
High efficiency can still be obtained by this approach but with material costs not appreciably higher than the glass used in the modules. In the normal approach, material costs alone are over $2 per watt of electrical output. In the new approach, material costs are only about 10 cents per watt, about 20 times smaller. Total solar power costs are expected to be cheaper than fossil or nuclear power.
Solar Hydrogen Producer. This simple device efficiently uses all solar wavelengths to make hydrogen in abundance. The hydrogen could replace natural gas in pipelines, and be a base for the so-called "hydrogen economy".
Hydrogen Tank. A hydrogen tank was developed by the same inventor (now dead) of the above solar hydrogen producer that is so safe it can be punctured with rifle bullets.
Super-Steam Technology. This machine combines compressed air, untreated or even polluted water, and almost any combustible fuel to produce steam at any pressure or temperature. The response is instant compared with a conventional boiler taking hours to reach operating pressure and temperature. The efficiency is over 90%, which compares favorably with a conventional boiler’s efficiency of 40%. Maintenance costs, fuel consumption, and air pollution all go way down. 3500 applications have been found for super-steam technology. Electricity can be generated for 1 cent per kilowatt-hour. Super-steam technology can be scaled from the size of a one-pound coffee can to a house.
Super-steam technology could be combined with the aforementioned solar hydrogen producer and hydrogen tank for on-site renewable energy uses.
Double-Exposure Flat-Plate Solar Collector. Apparently combines photo-voltaic and solar thermal collecting.
Environmental Heat Engine. Has some similarity to refrigerator or heat pump. Working fluid of ammonia or carbon dioxide is expanded by propane heater, cold fusion thermal reactor, or environmental heat to move pistons. Applications include vehicle engines, small-scale on-site electrical generators, and large-scale water lifters for dams and canals. (Could double electrical output of Hoover Dam.) This is a variation of Dennis Lee’s low-temperature phase-change engine which the inventor (now dead) claimed is superior to Lee’s engine.
Brown Nuclear Battery. Small "nuclear" battery uses tritium to power small circuits and electrical devices for several years. Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with a half-life of 12 years. These nuclear batteries use beta emitters which are similar to devices used in smoke detectors and to illuminate wrist watches. The key approach is the methods used by the inventor to "funnel" the emitted beta particles (electrons) into the affiliated circuits so that a useable voltage is produced.
The Brown nuclear battery has many uses, especially for computer-chip applications. A very small "nuclear" battery can be used to power a computer chip or computer chip set for several years. The battery could be about the same size as the packaged chip and be mounted directly on or adjacent to the chip. Many other applications are available. The nuclear radiation consists of beta particles which are electrons and can do no harm unless the battery material is ground up and swallowed.
Perpetual Battery. The hyper-cap E-converter is a thick quarter-sized battery which would put out .001 watt "forever" for such applications as critical components inside fail-safe computers, cellular telephones, etc. The energy comes from tapping ether fluctuations.
Clem Over-Unity Vegetable-Oil Engine. Richard Clem was a heavy equipment operator who had noticed that a hot asphalt sprayer would continue to run for up to an hour even after the power was turned off! So he built a modified version as a 200-pound engine which ran on vegetable oil at 300 degrees and was started by a 12-volt battery. The heat is internally generated by the engine. During a nine-day test conducted by Bendix Corporation engineers, the engine in its self-running mode consistently generated 350 horsepower into a dynamometer. The engine is constructed from off-the-shelf components except for a hollow shaft and a custom cone with enclosed spiral channels.
If the automobile industry adopts the Clem over-unity engine, motorists could change its eight gallons of vegetable oil only every 150,000 miles and never buy any gasoline. To illustrate the engine’s durability, the only working model of the Clem engine has been continually running on his son’s farm for several years.
Combining the Clem over-unity engine with the hydrosonic pump at the resort area could provide distilled ocean water as well as hot water for space heating, kitchens, and bathrooms at no energy cost.
The Clem over-unity vegetable-oil engine is not patented. It may be fairly straightforward to set up a small machine shop in the resort’s country for manufacturing hollow shafts and cones. Off-the-shelf components could be shipped in for subsequent commercial assembly and sale of Clem over-unity engines. Hydrosonic pumps could be either shipped in or locally manufactured under license and then combined with Clem engines into desalination units. The market for efficient self-powered desalination units ought to be enormous. Unfortunately, I have no idea as to the maximum practical size that self-powered desalination units could be built.
Water Engine. Hydrogen is formed by creating an underwater electrical discharge between two aluminum electrodes. Aluminum wire is fed against a rotating aluminum drum. A hydrogen-fueled 900-kilogram car runs 600 kilometers on 20 liters of water and one kilogram of aluminum.
The required high voltage can be obtained from the battery, a generator off the drive shaft, or two coils in parallel and fed from a conventional distributor.
The hydrogen gas fills a small buffer tank which in turn supplies hydrogen to the engine on demand. When the tank’s pressure exceeds a predetermined level, the electrodes are separated so that hydrogen generation is interrupted. As the pressure drops to a certain level, the aluminum wire is again fed against the aluminum drum.
Converter of Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation Energy to Electrical Energy. The existence of zero-point electromagnetic radiation was discovered in 1958 by Dutch physicist M. J. Sparnaay. Zero-point electromagnetic radiation is the same as the electromagnetic waves radiated from radio and television antennas except that the frequencies are random, incoherent, are present everywhere in the universe, and vary from zero cycles per second to infinity. Other names include "zero-point energy field", "vacuum field energy", "etheric energy field", and "ether".
Mr. Sparnaay had continued the experiments carried out by Hendrik B. G. Casimir in 1948 which showed the existence of a force between two uncharged parallel plates which arose from electromagnetic radiation surrounding the plates in a vacuum. This force has since been named the "Casimir effect" to honor the discoverer. (See "Casimer Effect Self-Charging Energy Cell" below.)
Mr. Sparnaay discovered that the forces acting on the plates arose from not only thermal radiation but also from another type of radiation now known as classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. Mr. Sparnaay determined that not only did the zero point electromagnetic radiation exists in a vacuum, but also that it persisted even at a temperature of absolute zero. Because it exists in a vacuum, zero-point electromagnetic radiation is homogeneous and isotropic as well as ubiquitous.
In addition, since zero-point electromagnetic radiation does not vary, the intensity of the radiation at any frequency is proportional to the cube of that frequency. Consequently the intensity of the radiation increases without limit as the frequency increases. The result is an infinite energy density for the radiation spectrum. (See "Etheric Weather Engineering" above for additional discussion.)
The special characteristics of the zero-point electromagnetic radiation of having a virtually infinite energy density and that it is omnipresent even in outer space make it very desirable as an energy source. However, the high energy densities only exist at very high frequencies. These large energies can be collected with small antenna-like structures (frequency is inversely proportional to size). But the frequencies are so high that they are unusable for practical energy uses.
With two antennas of very slightly different sizes, the converter collects zero-point electromagnetic radiation of two very slightly different frequencies. The converter then superimposes the two frequencies which results in a far lower beat frequency. The energy contained in the beat frequency is then transformed to practical electrical power which can be made available in any location on earth or in space. Applications include transportation, heating, cooling as well as many others.
Water-Fueled Internal Combustion Engine with Garrett Electrolytic Carburetor. Henry "Dad" Garrett and his son, Charles H. Garrett, in 1935 patented and exhibited an automobile that ran on water substituted for gasoline. Actually, the fuel was hydrogen after the water was broken down by electrolysis. The only items needed to convert a gasoline-powered auto to a water burner was an electrolytic carburetor and installation of a generator of double normal capacity for the breaking down of the water. Instant starts in any weather, no fire hazards, cooler operation and plenty of power and speed were claimed.
Rather than store the inflammable hydrogen, the same process makes the gas without a storage chamber in which the flames from the motor’s cylinders might react. Water is broken down into its component gases by passage of an electric current through it from electrodes immersed in the water. Hydrogen collects at the negative pole, and oxygen collects at positive. The hydrogen is then mixed with air and introduced directly into the cylinders. For an ordinary automobile, an electrolysis chamber of about a quart in capacity is big enough.
In summary, this simple process can provide:
Papp Engine. Joseph Papp was granted US Patent #3,670,494 for his "Noble Gas Plasma Engine". A mixture of recycled inert gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon) is exposed to a high-voltage discharge in a sealed cylinder with a piston. The spark causes the gases to expand violently though no combustion occurs. Mechanical energy is delivered by the piston's displacement. The gases immediately collapse to their original density, and the cycle is repeated. After several thousand hours the gases lose their elasticity and are replaced. The operating cost is 15 cents an hour.
The first prototype was a simple 90-horsepower Volvo engine with upper end modifications. Attaching the Volvo pistons to pistons fitting the sealed cylinders, the engine worked perfectly with an output of three hundred horsepower. The inventor claimed it would cost about twenty five dollars to charge each cylinder every sixty thousand miles.
There were indications that such an engine could provide its own electrical power and being a closed system, require no fuel. It is not by definition an electromagnetic engine, however. It is believed that at the heart of the Papp engine is the development of high-density electrical charge clusters which provide the energy to expand the gases.
Other patents are 5319336, 4151431, 3670494, 4046167 - Mechanical Accumulator, 3680431 - Method and Means for Generating Explosive Forces, and 4,428,193 - Inert Gas Fuel, Fuel Preparation Apparatus and System for Extracting Useful Work from the Fuel.
A demonstration of the Papp engine to representatives of the Stanford Research Institute resulted in killing one person and injuring another. Papp himself is believed to have died from apparent neutron radiation from his engine.
Jim Kettner of the Space Energy Association recently stated in a letter to me that this is the best self-running device he knows of which can produce substantial amounts of power. A variation of the Papp engine is currently being built by Jim Sabori and, if sufficiently funded, was to have been ready by the end of 1998.
In a recent letter from Hal Fox of Trenergy, Inc., Fox states that he believes that the Papp engine works but hopes that much simpler ways of making energy can be developed. There are several groups working on versions of the Papp engine. It seems to keep recycling through the new-energy community.
Muller Motor/Generator. Electrical generators in common use require external torque from gas, hydroelectric, and steam turbines, for example, to overcome back electromotive force. Bill Muller’s magnetic motor/generator eliminates back electromotive force. The coils are removed from the rotor and instead wrapped around powerful magnets equally spaced around the stator. Magnets are also equally spaced around the rotating disk. However, the number of rotor magnets is one more than the number of stator magnets.
A typical commercial motor involves pushing and pulling magnetically where in the Muller motor/generator only the magnetic pulling effect occurs. A perfectly balanced arrangement of the magnets results in a disk-like rotor that can be turned with no effort at all. The completely reversible result is if current is applied to the stator coils, the rotor turns. If the rotor is turned, the stator coils can generate current to be supplied to a load.
The stator coils are wrapped around cores made of inexpensive Muller-patented amorphous material which eliminates heat-producing hysteresis and eddy current losses. Because of instantaneous saturation and permeability, much less wire is needed for the stator coils which greatly reduces both ohmic resistance losses and inductance losses. No brushes are needed like in conventional direct current generators and motors which wear out. Bearing friction losses are greatly reduced by both weight reduction and using Muller’s cone-shaped magnetic bearings (patent applied for).
Electrical Generator. Two pairs of electromagnets warp permanent bar magnet’s magnetic fields across field coils to achieve over-unity electrical energy conversion gain, the magnitude of which is unknown. Requires additional resonant circuit components. Appears to be a potentially robust generator of electricity.
Self-Contained Power Supply. Uses tightly wound coil spring, flywheel, and magnets to achieve over-unity energy conversion gain. Potential market is as a battery pack replacement.
Motor/Generator. Incorporates permanent magnets which provide the drive torque by pulling rotor and stator poles together with an electromagnetic opposed excitation input pulsation used to weaken that magnetic pull to allow the poles to separate. Power output claimed to be 3 times power input.
WIN Zero Point Electrical Energy Converter. Extracts AC current with an output power over input power gain as high as 268.6%. It generates electricity by collecting electrons between E-dam cermets in a vacuum. A charge of electrons is oscillated in a tank circuit, and energy is collected or added to that charge from the vacuum. The mechanism is believed to be the Casimer effect. Solid-state with no moving parts and no size restrictions, individual units can be built to power a 15-kilowatt home or a 20-megawatt arc furnace without outside energy input.
Conversion of Aluminum Internal Combustion Engines to Magnetic Motor. Heads replaced with magnet arrangement so that the vehicle doesn’t need fuel nor battery recharging. Two-inch square Chinese super-magnets are embedded in the piston heads. Same-size magnets are embedded on outside of disks mounted on shaft, one magnet to each cylinder. A toothed gearwheel mounted on the front end of the shaft is linked by a chain drive to a gearwheel on the crankshaft. An electric motor is mounted on the block to turn the crankshaft. As crankshaft rotates, when each piston is up closest to top of the cylinder, its matching magnet is also at its angular point closest to the head. The two opposing south poles repel each other with 1,000 lb. of force. (This compares with the approximately 250 lb. of force on the piston head in a gasoline engine.)
The engine would still need oil changes every 50,000 to 80,000 miles. Because it runs cool, the block could be made of hard plastic which ought to be of cheaper material and easier to mold and machine than aluminum. A constant-speed motor, it would require a continuously variable transmission in order to power a vehicle. If the electric motor is replaced with a Muller magnetic motor (see above), the combined energy conversion gain is projected to be about 300.
Searl Effect Generator. The Searl effect generator (SEG) can be used to charge the batteries in a self-powered electric vehicle. A solid-state device, the heart of an SEG is a series of three concentric magnetic rings with magnetic rollers going around the rings. Both the rollers and rings are comprised of four layers of titanium, iron, nylon, and neodymium.
The magnetic fields impressed on the rollers have both AC and DC components. The AC component is for floating the rollers so they don’t touch the rings. The DC component is to prevent them from flying off. The innermost set contains a minimum of 12 rollers for the same reason that a linear motor will not operate with less than 12 phases.
The inner set of rollers travel around at 250 miles per hour, the middle set travels at approximately 600 miles per hour, and the outer set at approximately 1500 miles per hour. Hundreds of millions of volts are generated the energy of which is picked up by brushes positioned all around the outside set of rollers.
An SEG also creates an anti-gravity field. An uncontrolled SEG will rise about 50 feet as the rollers increase speed, emit a light blue halo which indicates energy is being extracted from the ether, and then shoot up into the sky gaining speed, never to be seen again. At least one roof has been holed by an SEG. The friction-less rollers can be prevented from reaching the critical velocity that produces lift by use of a "governor", either mechanical or electronic.
An SEG can be easily controlled by immersing it in an electromagnetic wave field the frequency of which is a harmonic of the SEG’s primary frequency. While in resonance, the magnetic poles of the rollers reach a unification state, and they stop moving.
The inventor has built and flown a small "inverse gravity" vehicle. A flying saucer-like SEG-powered aircraft about the size of a bus is currently being built in England by a private group.
The inventor for some years independently powered his house off the power grid with a home-sized electrical generator version of the SEG. A householder could set up a 45 x 45-cm unit and generate an output of 11 kilowatts of free electrical power.
Oddly, a house powered by an SEG has been observed to have greater healing powers than conventionally electric powered houses. The healing effect is claimed to be due to the electrons zapping the occupants, taking away pain and returning blood more quickly to damaged tissue. The SEG would also help combat asthma, bronchitis, hay fever and lung complaints due to the increased supply of oxygen in the body. Conventional methods of electric power do not pump out electrons which results in tired eyes and a tired brain.
The SEG's negative charge also means that dust stays in the carpet instead of floating in the air. This is similar in action to negative ion generators sometimes sold as air fresheners.
A German power company is reportedly considering replacing a nuclear power station with eight fuel-less SEGs costing a total of about $4.5 million and generating a total of 240 megawatts with no pollution.
Gravito Magnetic Device. The gravito magnetic device (GMD), also known as the David Hamel machine, is a cheap version of the Searl effect generator (SEG) (see above) that can be built with off-the-shelf components. The GMD has magnets attached to radial spokes or arms that are jointed. These magnets are floated in a magnetic housing and when properly biased, continue to spin, gaining momentum and speed with each rotation and achieving the same tremendous electrostatic buildup on the outside rim as the SEG.
The parts inside the GMD are configured in such a way as to promote an enclosed constant variation of opposing magnetic fields. In the resting state, the moving cones are balanced and stabilized in a magnetic field repulsion, like a magnetic bearing. The startup of the GMD is initiated by lowering a magnet at the center top of the shell, inside the shell, towards the momentarily magnetically balanced moving cones.
As the center magnet, which opposes the one attached at the center of the upper moving cone, is lowered inside the GMD, it forces the upper cone to move sideways, shifting the magnetic balance between the cones inside the GMD. The cones stay offset to each other for a short while and then plasma-like energy starts to build up around the GMD. This energy built up creates a shift of colors from red-orange to light blue and then white. Following this effect the GMD starts to lose weight and quickly generates an upper lift in a greater ratio than its total weight.
It should be emphasized that the power generated, surrounding the GMD, is extremely powerful and radiates, causing interruptions of electron flow in normal electrical systems, i.e. lights, cars, transformers, and interferes with electromagnetic transmissions. So it is without saying that this machine has to be operated with serious caution when completed and activated. However, if a control system is in place, it is easy to stop its effect. One of the main purposes of GMD research is to understand the effects of enclosed opposing magnetic fields that have varying vector angles.
The GMD is potentially a versatile, useful technology which also generates antigravity. The GMD has a powerful upward thrust causing it to rise in the air in a manner similar to a Searl effect generator (see above). (The first assembled model after two hours of increasing spin velocity unexpectedly crashed through the roof and escaped.) When the inner workings of what causes the secondary electrogravitational fields are understood, it is probable that various devices can be created providing plentiful energy of different types.
It should be noted that all building materials for the GMD are readily available almost anywhere in the world, and the cost is relatively cheap. A lot of hand work is required but nothing that is unreasonably unattainable. No special machining or parts are required. Only patience and devotion is needed.
Casimer Effect Self-Charging Energy Cell. In the above article on etheric weather engineering, the force of gravity is described as the ether weakly pushing two objects such as a book and the earth into each other’s shadow. Gravity can also be thought of as the long-range version of the Casimer effect. The Casimer effect predicts that two metal plates close together will attract each other.
Consider the plates set at a certain distance apart. In the space between the plates, only those ether (vacuum) field fluctuations for which a whole number of half-waves just spans the distance can exist, just like waves formed by shaking a rope tied at both ends. Outside the plates, the fluctuations can have many more values because there is space. The number of modes outside the plates, all of which carry energy and momentum, is greater than those inside. This imbalance PUSHES THE PLATES TOGETHER.
The proprietary Casimer effect self-charging energy cell contains many extremely thin layers of carbon, magnesium, chromium oxide, and a couple of other elements and compounds. The result is analogous to a boat that has some rather large leaks. More water pours into the boat as fast as water is bailed out. Likewise, as electromagnetic energy is drawn out of the Casimer effect self-charging energy cell when inserted in an electrical circuit, energy is drawn in from the surrounding ether. Physically and functionally, the Casimer effect energy cell is like a solid-state battery that recharges itself with some valuable features such as simplicity and compactness.
Switched Reluctance Motor. The switched reluctance motor is a motor design that has been around for many decades but has never been commercialized. The inventor of the Casimer effect self-charging energy cell is also developing an efficient commercial version of the switched reluctance motor specifically designed with modern switching components. The intended end use is for powering electric vehicles. The switched reluctance motor has the key advantages of ease of manufacture, simplicity, and allowing complete vehicle motion control. No claims are being made that it is capable of over-unity power conversion.
Most self-powered electric vehicle power train concepts involve combining an over-unity motor (to extend the range between battery charges) with an on-board battery charger and a pack of batteries or super-capacitors. The Casimer effect self-charging energy cell offers some important advantages such as much simpler mounting of one to several battery-like cells in the vehicle’s engine compartment and greatly increased maintainability and dependability. With the cells’ self-charging capability, the efficiency of the vehicle’s electric motor thus becomes less of an issue. Electric motor features such as controllability, manufacturing cost, simplicity, and reliability can thus be given much greater consideration.
This particular self-powered electric vehicle power train combination may be the best one. If plugged into the electric grid while parked in the owner’s garage, the revenue from running the electric meter backwards could eventually pay for the vehicle’s purchase cost.
Joe’s Energy Cell. The Joe’s energy cell basically comprises of two metal containers, one inside the other. Both containers are filled with specially charged and cleaned water with the inner container perforated to allow water to freely move between the inside and outside of the inner container. The outside container is electrically connected to the anode of a battery, and the inner container connected to the battery’s cathode. The outside container is closed except for an orifice to which a thin pipe is attached. The other end of the pipe is attached to the outside housing of the carburetor of a gasoline engine. Gas/energy is transferred to the carburetor through the pipe. The entire cell including the pipe must be electrically insulated from the engine.
Various designs and shapes of both containers have been experimentally built. The original and simplest comprised of both containers as long pipes with the inner pipe, which was perforated, inside the outer pipe.
At least fourteen vehicles in Australia have been fitted with different versions of Joe’s energy cells to be driven without fuel nor battery charging. The engine, radiator and exhaust pipe stays cold enough to freeze water – warranting replacing water in the block with transmission fluid. The timing does have to be advanced between 25 and 80 degrees, depending on the type of engine, to allow the engine to run smoothly. The engine’s power doubles over that when petrol-fueled.
The Joe energy cell is not explainable using conventional mainstream physics. It is not even known if the process inside the cylinders is implosion, explosion, or both. No gasoline is mixed with air inside the carburetor. It appears that zero-point energy is somehow drawn from the ether and converts the air entering the cylinders into some kind of fuel. The inventor claims the process increases the frequency and energy of the air.
For converting existing gasoline-powered vehicles into self-powered vehicles which don’t require fuel nor battery charging from a local electric utility, adding the Joe’s energy cell seems to offer by far the easiest modification. Nearly the entire engine is left alone. A separate heater would have to be provided since the engine runs cold. The vehicle will not rust, and paint will not oxidize.
Guy McCarthy email@example.com has provided the following insightful analysis of the Joe energy cell from a biodynamics perspective:
[0.1] The "Joe Cell" (described in NEXUS magazine, Aug-Sep '98, pp. 43-46) is an electrical device attached to the carburetor of an ordinary automobile engine which allegedly enables it to run for extended periods with the fuel line disconnected.
[0.2] Biodynamics is a science of natural forces and agriculture inspired by the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner. It pre-dates "Organics" as the original alternative to chemical/industrial agriculture. Biodynamics has achieved limited recognition in the United States and Canada, but is widely practiced in Europe, New Zealand, and Australia.
[1.0] The Joe cell uses water as a storage medium, which, when charged above a certain threshold, collects additional energy as needed by the engine. The initial charge is not depleted as the engine runs, but will dissipate under certain conditions. This matches a key attribute of the biodynamic ether, which attracts more ether to itself once the local concentration reaches a certain threshold. Without adequate boundaries (or storage conditions) the etheric charge build-up will dissipate.
[2.0] The motive reaction in the engine seems to be *implosion*, since the ignition timing must be advanced so far into the compression stroke. (Note that 80 degrees is nearly 2/3 of a typical compression cycle, which totals about 135 degrees in a 4-stroke engine.) Implosion may be considered equivalent to "a sudden condensation of the ether" which is also thought to be the motive reaction that creates lightning and thunder in the atmosphere. According to biodynamic researchers, condensation is a state change from a more rarefied ether into a less ratified one, releasing energy in the process.
[2.1] Biodynamics deals with four states of ether which are equivalent to the four elements intuited by ancient philosophers:
Warmth Ether corresponds to the Fire element
Light Ether corresponds to the Air element
Tone Ether (or "Chemical Ether") corresponds to the Water element
Life Ether corresponds to the Earth element
[2.2] In the physical world, substance tends to flow from a high potential to a low potential. This is what the concept of "entropy" and the Second Law of Thermodynamics are based on. But in the etheric world of living energies, the inverse is true. Ether is naturally attracted to itself and flows from low potential to high potential. This is why living organisms continue to draw nutrients and life forces into themselves while the rest of the world is supposedly running down. Ether penetrates substance, and substance influences ether. This dynamic interplay is essential to life on the physical plane.
[2.3] Under favorable conditions, the following etheric condensations will occur:
Warmth Ether --> Light Ether, releasing energy as lightning
Light Ether --> Tone Ether, releasing energy as thunder
Tone Ether --> Life Ether, releasing energy as biological manifestation
[2.4] Recall that lightning and thunder sometimes occur independently of each other (as in "heat lightning" and "rolling thunder"), while at other times they are closely linked. Clearly any reasonable explanation for these phenomena must allow for both cases. The common notion that lightning and thunder are caused by static discharge between air masses is clearly untenable. A buildup of static charge in such magnitudes could only occur under extremely dry conditions; the typical thunderstorm is certainly not dry.
[2.5] The biodynamic researcher points to a well-defined cumulus cloud in mid-summer as the ideal collector of etheric energy. Hour by hour it grows, drawing abundant warmth ether from the atmosphere into itself as well as particles of dust and moisture. The cloud builds itself taller and taller - its boundaries sharply distinct from the rest of the sky. Eventually the cloud becomes saturated - turning darker and forming a mighty thunderhead. At this point, anyone who is familiar with weather patterns in open country is headed for shelter. They know that a violent thunderstorm could be unleashed at any moment.
[2.6] Just a few months ago the author observed such a phenomena in central Maryland. The top of the cloud was puffy and brilliant white, illuminated by the late afternoon sun. In contrast, the bottom was flat and dark, laden with moisture. Great bolts of lightning began to crackle about its upper regions. The air felt clear and energized while all around trees were bending and twisting in sudden gusts of wind. When the storm finally broke it was both fearsome and beautiful, a mighty discharge of lightning, thunder, and rain.
[2.7] We can surmise that the Joe cell becomes highly charged with etheric energy, and that this charge is transferred through the carburetor to the air entering each cylinder. As the compression stroke begins the volume of air is compressed, causing a further concentration of etheric charge. Soon the air becomes saturated with ether. At this point conditions in the cylinder are similar to those within the thunderhead. The ignition spark, far advanced into the compression stroke, serves to catalyze a condensation reaction of the compressed ether. This sudden change of state causes the air mixture to contract sharply, generating power through the remainder of the compression stroke. Therefore the air mixture in each cylinder undergoes a structural change, not a chemical one, and the flywheel is driven by *suction* rather than combustion. With the exception of small amounts of vapor from engine oil and perhaps trace elements from the engine and muffler, the exhaust should be of substantially the same quality as the air intake.
[2.8] Since warmth ether is the most rarefied ether, condensation will have the effect of reducing or consuming warmth. Therefore implosion is a cool process, which tends to absorb heat rather than release it. This matches observations of the Joe cell in which the engine runs cold. Unlike combustion, implosion is a "living" process, and as such produces no waste heat or by-products.
[3.0] All three styles of Joe cell are based on concentric, insulated cylinders. This is similar to the classic "orgone accumulator" discovered by Wilhelm Reich. Reich found that metals tended to conduct ether while organic materials tended to absorb it. By layering the two types of materials together, Reich caused a directional flow of ether to occur. The orgone accumulator was a six-sided box constructed with alternating layers of metal and non-metallic materials.
[3.1] The inclusion of a 1.5-volt battery to maintain the charged condition (and a 12-volt battery to create it) is an interesting variation on the orgone accumulator design. There is precedent for this idea in electrogravity documentation that has become available in recent years. (See the USAF report "Electrogravitic Systems" that was released in 1995 as well as patents by T. Townsend Brown.) The basic idea is that a charged condenser exhibits a tendency to move towards its positive terminal. This is thought to result from a net movement of ether in the opposite direction (from positive to negative). Therefore a static electric charge stimulates a directional flow of ether.
[3.2] The Joe cell design implies a net movement of ether from positive to negatively charged terminals (i.e. towards the center of the cell and towards the engine).
[4.0] The transfer of energy to the carburetor is accomplished by several different conductors including plastic, copper, aluminum and rubber tubing. The common material in all of these configurations is the *air* inside the tubing. This is consistent with the biodynamic view that oxygen is an excellent carrier of etheric forces. (Fertile soils are said to contain 50% air for just this reason.) The metallic carburetor housing would conduct the etheric energy to its interior surfaces, where incoming air would absorb it and carry it into the cylinders.
[5.0] In conclusion, the Joe cell offers a compelling view of how ordinary combustion engines might be modified to run on natural etheric energy. This could be an important direction for future research. Validation of the concept could be approached in three phases:
[5.1] Collecting a high concentration of etheric charge. For some ideas on how to accomplish this, see "Geometric Energy Fields" at http://www.twelvestar.com/sourceworks/ which includes specific instructions for building resonant etheric devices.
[5.2] Stimulating a sudden condensation of ether by means of electric spark and measuring the implosion effect in a pressurized container.
[5.3] Achieving reproducible evidence of successive implosion events within a small engine mounted for laboratory testing.
Advanced Self-Powered Electric Vehicle Concept
Electric vehicles are clean, quiet, powerful, require much less maintenance than gasoline or diesel-fueled vehicles, and inherently much simpler and easier to manufacture. Their drawbacks have been a short range, long battery recharging time, and a heavy, bulky battery pack. Clearly, self-powered electric vehicles, if they could somehow be designed and manufactured at a reasonable cost, would be a commercial success. Forbes January 25, 1999 compares golf carts (400,000 already sold) with personal computers. http://www.forbes.com/forbes/99/0125/6302088a.htm
Self-powered electric vehicles at minimum must satisfy four requirements: The battery ideally should not have the disadvantages of conventional lead-acid batteries such as temperature sensitivity, low charge-to-weight ratio, toxic materials, and finicky slow recharging. The electric motor should be durable and highly efficient. Heating and air conditioning must be provided. The really key difference from conventional electric vehicles is having an on-board battery charger.
Electric bicycles with only one battery are inherently more practical than conventional electric cars or trucks carrying a half-ton or so of batteries stuffed into every available nook and cranny of the vehicle. When just one battery out of one or two dozen batteries fails, the dead battery can be time-consuming to find before replacement. Once a dead battery is replaced, it could be a short time before another battery fails again. Besides weighting much less and with the batteries taking up much less space, a self-powered electric vehicle with an on-board battery charger would require at most only a few batteries.
What follows is a discussion of candidate technologies which could be combined into a reliable, commercially successful advanced self-powered electric vehicle.
Alvin Snaper’s Power Technology Battery. Las Vegas resident Alvin Snaper (600 patents and new products) through his company, Power Technology, Inc., is developing a superior new battery with none of the drawbacks of all other types of batteries such as temperature sensitivity. Increasing the surface area of the electroplates by up to 1000 times greatly increases current output and allows much quicker charge/discharge rates. Different chemistry reduces the weight of the battery by 50%, reduces cost, and is much more environmentally friendly than lead. (For more information, see www.powerpwtc.com/business_of_issuer.htm.)
Maxwell Technologies Ultra-Capacitor. Since there is no heat nor waste product buildup as with electrochemical batteries, ultra-capacitors can easily last many hundreds of thousands of extremely rapid and deep charge/discharge cycles. They can supply repeated bursts of power for fractions of a second to several minutes. They are especially useful for supercharging power for accelerations or climbing. With their quick recharge capability, ultra-capacitors can easily capture regenerative braking energy, extending the range of the vehicle. For increased safety, they can be stored, assembled, maintained, and transported while completely discharged. Since the energy stored is directly related to the voltage, the amount of available energy can be easily monitored. This precision eliminates the need for sophisticated state-of-charge algorithms. Other advantages include temperature insensitivity and low maintenance.
Capacitors are inherently more capable than electrochemical batteries of withstanding quick discharges of electricity to the motor when the driver demands high acceleration by stepping on the throttle. It is conceivable that ultra-capacitors could be combined with batteries to take advantage of the best performance characteristics of both types.
Maxwell Technologies' commercially available PowerCacheä ultra-capacitors pack up to 100 times the energy of conventional capacitors and can deliver ten times the power of ordinary batteries. Their ultra-capacitor is a double-layer capacitor incorporating a unique metal/carbon electrode and an advanced non-aqueous electrolytic solution. As a potential is applied across the terminals, ions migrate to the high-surface-area electrodes. The combination of available surface area and proximity to the current collector provide an ultra-high capacitance for this electrostatic process.
Ukrainian Capacitor-Like Battery. The I. N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev, Ukraine, has invented an entirely new type of battery. Emtech LTD., Mississauga, Ontario is commercializing the battery and has applied for 11 patents. A set of conventional lead-acid batteries can propel a small electric car for 100 miles or so, require several hours to recharge, and weigh 1000 lb. An equivalent set of Ukrainian batteries is expected to weigh approximately 200 lb., provide a much greater range of up to possibly 200-300 miles, require 15 to 30 minutes to recharge, and maintain full voltage until 94% discharge. The Ukrainian battery operates well in the temperature range of -40 to +60 degrees centigrade. A side benefit of the Ukrainian batteries is that they are made only of proprietary materials which are environmentally friendly, plentiful, and inexpensive. (Dated 1993; claims currently are not considered credible. Emtech LTD, which had the commercialization license, recently went bankrupt. Nu Omnicomm Technologies, Inc., of Salt Lake City, which has close ties to the I. N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, may be able to revive the Ukrainian battery.)
A Ukrainian battery stores the charges in crystalline layers of a sheet-like material similar in appearance to mica. Due to nonlinear quantum mechanic effects, the electrical characteristic of each crystalline layer is that of a capacitor as thin as one molecule. Since capacitance is inversely proportional to thickness of the separation between layers, the practical consequence of the Ukrainian battery is to electrically function in a manner similar to that of a giant capacitor.
Ed Baldwin’s Super-Capacitor. Similar in electrical function to the Ukrainian battery, Ed Baldwin’s solid-state multi-layered "super-capacitor" has a very high dielectric constant. It is believed ultimately capable of ten times the electrical energy storage capacity per pound of lead-acid batteries.
Yasunori Takahashi’s ultra-capacitor. The Takahashi ultra-capacitor is rated at approximately 20 farads at 25 volts in a volume of about one cubic centimeter.
Blacklight Power’s hydrino battery. Blacklight Power is completing a 10-kilogram battery using hydrinos which can supply 150 horsepower for 1,000 miles.
ON-BOARD ULTRA-CAPACITOR/BATTERY CHARGER
The famous inventor Dr. Nikola Tesla reportedly modified and drove a Pierce Arrow automobile in 1931. Tesla’s car required neither gasoline nor external battery charging. The power source was an array of vacuum tubes apparently similar to photo-multiplier tubes. Before and since then, dozens of other inventors claimed to have developed or are developing devices for converting relatively small input power to larger output power.
It is generally inaccurate to say that their devices produce more energy than they consume which would violate the widely accepted physical law of the conservation of energy. The accurate statement to make would be that a small external energy input causes very large internal energy to be transformed into large external energy output (electrical, thermal, and/or mechanical).
An on-board charger is required to keep the ultra-capacitor/batteries fully charged while the vehicle is parked as well as when the vehicle is motion. Parked in a garage, the car’s battery charger could feed electricity back into the electric power grid and help pay for the car, if it were not for potential safety problems for power company workers. Descriptions of some of the more promising on-board charger technologies follow. (If only mentioned, see additional details above.)
Blacklight Power’s "hydrinos". It is an exotic new source of clean energy from ordinary water.
Ken Shoulders’ high-density charge clusters device (U.S. Patent 5,018,180). A nearly solid-state device, it ultimately may put out one kilowatt of electricity and one kilowatt of thermal energy per cubic inch. Its gain can be increased so that it puts out 30 times as much power as its input electrical power. However, the device’s power conversion gain is more stable with the gain at about 5 times. (Still being researched.)
Trenergy’s plasma-injected transmutation, Dr. Case’s gas-phase catalytic fusion, fiber-based cold fusion power cell, and the hybrid cold-fusion hydrogen reactor have electric-to-thermal energy conversion gains as high as well over 100 to 1. Their energy comes from high-density clusters of electrons carrying small numbers of protons at very high velocities to target nuclei using relatively low voltages.
W. A. Lambertson’s WIN zero point electrical energy converter extracts AC current as high as 9.908 amperes using an input current of only 0.2596 amperes. It generates electricity by collecting electrons between "E-dams" in a vacuum. A charge of electrons is oscillated in a tank circuit, and energy is collected or added to that charge from the vacuum. Solid-state with no moving parts and no size restrictions, individual units may eventually be built to power a 15-kilowatt home or a 20-megawatt arc furnace with an efficiency of 1000% or ten times the external input power.
The Correas’ pulsed abnormal glow discharge reactor is an over-sized glass vacuum tube which uses high-density charge clusters to produce useful positive AC-to-DC electrical power conversion gains such as 483%.
Converter of Zero-Point Electromagnetic Radiation Energy to Electrical Energy. Converts very high frequencies of natural fluctuations of the universal electromagnetic radiation field to usable electrical power at much lower beat frequencies.
John Searl’s Searl effect generator has three concentric rings of magnetic rollers. Brushes positioned around the outer ring of rollers pick up electricity.
Frank Richardson’s electrical generator. Two pairs of electromagnets warp permanent bar magnet’s magnetic fields back and forth across field coils to achieve over-unity electrical energy conversion gain. Requires additional resonant circuit components.
Of the many types of electrical rotating machines that have been developed, of particular interest are those which are claimed to incorporate permanent magnets in order to develop more mechanical output power than their electrical input power. Such claims are considered suspect by many skeptics since they apparently violate the so-called law of conservation of energy. Skepticism is often reinforced by frequent power gain measurement errors. However, it has also been suggested that the key to over-unity power conversion gain in such motors is to use super-powerful permanent magnets at a very high rotating speed. A so-called "super-efficient" electric motor, besides providing motive power, could also act as an on-board capacitor/battery charger whether the vehicle is cruising, idling, or parked.
Perm-Mag Motor. An over-unity energy converter claimed to have a gain of up to several times of shaft rotational power over electrical input power, the super-efficient "perm-mag" motor generates 1 horsepower per pound of weight. Used in a self-powered electric vehicle, a 50-pound, 50-horsepower electric motor is equivalent to a 250-horsepower gasoline-fueled engine.
The perm-mag motor’s inventor, Ronald Brandt, has successfully demonstrated a 10-pound, 10-horsepower prototype. Further research is expected to lead to a substantial increase in energy conversion gain over the reported gain of 400%. A 50-pound, 50-horsepower model (equivalent to a 250-horsepower gasoline-fueled engine) is currently being mounted in a Chrysler New Yorker for testing. Its companion controller, which is required to complete the resonant circuit for achieving over-unity gain, has been designed. It is not known yet whether a separate on-board battery charger will still be needed for a completely self-powered electric vehicle.
It should be noted that just because a motor can produce more mechanical power than its electrical input power does not necessarily mean that it is suitable for powering an electric vehicle. An electric vehicle motor ideally should have a number of other characteristics such as reversibility, complete variable power control, complete variable speed control, braking, and stepping. It is understood that the perm-mag motor meets all performance requirements for powering electric vehicles. It is not known how the perm-mag motor specifically compares with other types of over-unity motors.
Other Over-Unity Magnetic Motors. There are several other types of magnetic motors claimed to have over-unity energy conversion gain such as the ones that have been developed by Aspden, Reed, Watson, Bergman, Johnson, Labine, Tewari, and Marinov. For example, Teruo Kawai of Tokyo, Japan recently obtained U.S. Patent 5,436,518 for his "Motive Power Generating Device". The patent’s key statement is as follows: "Electric power of 19.55 watts was applied to the electromagnets at 17 volts and 1.15 amperes. … an output of 62.16 watt was obtained." Dividing the output power by the input power yields an efficiency of 318%. However, as stated above for the perm-mag motor, such motors may not necessarily have all the characteristics needed for powering electric vehicles. Power gain measurements also can be misleading.
COMPRESSED AIR-DRIVEN AIR CONDITIONER/HEATER
Alvin Snaper has patented a compressed air-driven air conditioner/heater. It relies on the principle of a vortex tube. Air whirled in a vortex tube separates with the cold air molecules collecting in one portion of the tube, and the warm air molecules collecting in another portion of the tube. The cold air is expelled from one end of the tube, and the warm air is expelled from the other end. It can be switched between providing 90% cold air and 10% warm air, or 10% cold air and 90% warm air.
The metal tube is about a foot long and a half-inch in diameter with a two-inch long compressed air intake tube perpendicularly attached about three inches from one end. The intake compressed air requirement specifications are 7 CFM at 40 PSI. The volume of air expelled is twice that of a refrigerant-type automobile air conditioner while requiring only one-fourth the horsepower. Also, no warm-up period is required as with conventional air conditioners or heaters. Its efficiency is nearly 30%.
The vehicle would have a redundant pair (for increased reliability) of air compressors for pressurizing the vehicle’s tubular frame which would also serve as a storage chamber. The heavy (no fuel economy requirement) and strong (for safety) tubular frame would help distribute compressed air to the power steering, power brakes, power seats, power windows, windshield wipers, door locks, air conditioner/heater, and a computer-controlled air ride suspension system.
CONTINUOUS CLIMATE-CONTROL SYSTEM
Since the vehicle’s on-board super-capacitor/battery charger is expected to keep the super-capacitor/batteries charged even while the vehicle is parked, the vehicle’s interior temperature could be thermostatically controlled at a comfortable room temperature 24 hours per day, seven days a week regardless of the exterior temperature.
LOW-TEMPERATURE DIAMOND COATINGS
Durability would be enhanced by coating parts such as shock absorbers with diamond using a new nondestructive low-temperature coating process which also was patented by Alvin Snaper.
ADVANCED COMPUTER-CONTROLLED SUSPENSION SYSTEMS
Computer-controlled hydraulic shock absorbers as well as the computer-controlled air ride suspension system would be supplied by Aimrite Systems International, Inc., which owns the patents. Aimrite's Computer-Optimized Adaptive Suspension Technology (COAST) system replaces a vehicle's conventional shock absorbers with specially designed hydraulic shock absorbers. The COAST system utilizes a sophisticated computer and position sensors to monitor the vehicle's level at each corner. The computer's microprocessor checks the sensors 240 times per second and optimally regulates the damping on all four shocks based on this input. The firmware used in the microprocessor is patented and represents the most important element in the COAST system. It controls nine dynamic and static parameters of motion (roll, pitch, sprung natural frequency, unsprung natural frequency, pumping down, stored energy, topping out, bottoming out, and height).
The COAST system is not only totally automatic, but it monitors and controls the vehicle's ride performance on a continuous basis providing soft and stable ride characteristics at all times as needed. The ride is comparable to active systems without the need for pumps nor high-speed servo-valves.
Each shock absorber is actually a complementary pair of shock absorbers mounted in opposing vertical compression/rebound modes. The computer sends signals to valves to release pressure as required. Aimrite considers its shock absorbers more durable and react faster than competing computer-controlled shock absorbers which apply pressure when needed. A built-in safety factor is that if the computer fails, the result is conventional damper operation, and failure of an individual damper is equivalent to failure of a conventional shock absorber.
Aimrite’s air ride suspension system replaces a vehicle's front coil springs and rear leaf springs. The air suspension comprises of a high-quality control subsystem that includes the aforementioned dual redundant air compressors, air dryers and filters, position sensors, computer-controlled solenoid valves, and a dashboard-mounted control to ensure proper operation and a long and reliable life of the air suspension in all weather and driving conditions. While stopped or driving, the control subsystem allows the operator to easily maintain the correct ride height under all loading conditions. For example, the chassis can be raised for a bumpy ride and lowered for stable highway driving. The vehicle body is automatically leveled at all four corners, even when parked on an uneven surface.
Aimrite’s suspension provides a full air suspension ride, with increased comfort and control. Built-in safety capabilities are provided that virtually eliminate traditional problems associated with air ride suspension systems.
Combining Aimrite’s two computer-controlled suspension systems would offer a luxurious ride with sports-car control and additional features at a reasonable price.
MONOCOQUE (UNIBODY) BASALT/CARBON FIBER FOAM BODY/FRAME
Developed by the I. N. Frantsevich Institute for Problems of Materials Science, Kiev, Ukraine, basalt/carbon fiber foam is extremely strong yet lighter than fiberglass. Test vehicle made with basalt/carbon fiber foam parts was only vehicle ever tested that can cut through a cast-iron London taxicab in a collision.
By combining these superb new technologies into an advanced self-powered electric car that would be superior to any other car even envisioned, it is evident that it should not be very difficult to sell a reasonably priced car which would offer the following features:
The hydro-magnetic dynamo is a recent addition to this compilation of advanced technologies. The dynamo appears to be this report’s only large-scaled emission-free electrical generator which does not requires external fueling. The dynamo is capable of powering larger transportation vehicles such as buses, trucks, ships, locomotives, and airplanes. Doubt remains about making dynamos compact enough to power automobiles.
The circumstantial evidence for the Russian inventor’s performance claims for his hydro-magnetic dynamo is reasonably strong. While three experimental prototypes have been built with Russian and Armenian expertise and equipment, a fourth demonstration prototype needs to be built with more modern Western engineering expertise and equipment to verify dynamo performance claims and to further explore the dynamo’s potential capabilities. Performance claims are as follows:
Dynamos are scaleable from 100 kilowatts to 1,000 megawatts. One 1000-megawatt dynamo is about the size of a two-car garage. For comparison, Hoover Dam’s 17 generators have a total rated capacity of 2,000 megawatts.
A dynamo can reliably run continuously for 25 years or more with little or no maintenance, no external fuel source, and no pollution. If a dynamo’s output is 1,000,000 watts, its total input power is approximately 10,000 watts. So the dynamo’s energy efficiency is 10,000%, or 100 to 1.
The source of the dynamo’s massive electrical output is a nuclear reaction which is not generally known to mainstream science. However, it is known that the dynamo produces alpha particles which are helium nuclei made from fused deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen with one proton and one neutron. The electrons missing from the helium nuclei are what seem to provide a copious "sink" of electricity, and which happen to be the secret to the dynamo’s ability to generate an exceptionally large amount of electricity. It is also known that the dynamo uses high-density charge clusters. High-density charge clusters are the basis of plasma-injected transmutation of elements and also neutralization of radioactive materials.
There were three dynamo prototypes built. The first two small experimental prototypes were built in Vladivostok. The third and last prototype continuously generated electricity, except when turned off to incorporate improvements, from 1992 to January 1997 in Armenia. (It was sadly destroyed during an armed rebellion by local religious fanatics unhappy with the Armenian government.) It generated a constant current of 6,800 amperes at 220 volts DC. That multiplies out to nearly 1.5 megawatts. The Armenian prototype dynamo's toroid weighed 900 kilograms and had a diameter of approximately 2 meters.
Cooling water is circulated through copper pipes wrapped around the toroid. The heat is expelled from the cooling water with a heat exchanger.
After a dynamo is assembled in a factory, the water is literally jump-started (by discharging a large bank of capacitors) to moving around the toroid. The dynamo's controls are temporarily set to generating enough of a modest amount of electricity to sustain itself, even while being transported from the factory to its site. For the Armenian prototype dynamo, two 10-farad capacitor banks (from Russian military radar stations) were used to provide the initial water motion (acceleration and excitation of water). Using a total of 20,000 joules, 100,000 volts with 0.05 amperes of current were applied to the Armenian dynamo for 3 - 5 minutes for starting its generation of electricity.
After these Russian radar capacitors were used to jump-start the Armenian prototype dynamo, a bank of buffer batteries sustained continuous operation when water motion and ionizing occurs. This battery bank contained 8 powerful 12-volt, 150-ampere lead batteries. The Armenian dynamo's sustaining input power was 14,400 watts. The nominal maximum output power is nearly 1,500,000 watts. Once, the output current was accidentally increased to 40,000 amperes for almost a minute. Fortunately, the power was reduced to a safe level before the water started to boil. Internal coils (windings) control water velocity and therefore dynamo power.
The dynamo's production cost is estimated at $500 per kilowatt which is competitive to nuclear power’s capital costs of $5,000 per kilowatt, windmill capital costs of $4,000 per kilowatt, etc. A well-run nuclear power plant can generate power for 1.5 cents per kilowatt-hour, coal 1.8 cents,
natural gas 3.4 cents, and oil 4.1 cents, on the average. The dynamo’s operating cost would be approximately .1 cent per kilowatt-hour with no external fuel needed nor pollution.
Dynamos could replace all nuclear power plants, solar installations, wood-burning furnaces, hydro-electric dams, windmills, fossil-fueled power plants, etc. Satellites, locomotives, heavy trucks, airplanes, and ships are obvious transportation applications. It does not seem that dynamos can be made compact enough to power electric cars although it certainly would be worth trying.
A Forbes article states that PECO (formerly Philadelphia Electric Company), with an income stream to back it up, was able to sell on Wall Street $4 billion worth of bonds paying 5.8 per cent. A dynamo manufacturer could simply sell bonds to build and operate dynamos at a low interest rate. Dynamo loan payback times may be in the ball park of a half-year to a year, depending on the local electricity market price. As soon as a dynamo is paid for, the revenue from that time on would be almost pure profit. Once a track record is established by successfully installing a few dynamos, the dynamo company could raise money to build more dynamos by simply selling
billions of dollars of bonds instead of stock. So therefore, there wouldn't be any dilution of ownership.
A recent IEEE Spectrum article stated that world demand for electricity increases approximately 500 megawatts every day. To put this in perspective, the equivalent of another Hoover Dam would have to be built every four days to keep up with world electricity increase demands. Or, a dynamo manufacturing company would have to build another 500-megawatt dynamo every single day to keep up with world electricity increase demand in addition to replacing all existing generators fueled by hydro, nuclear, and fossil fuels.
The following is a highly condensed summary of the "Description" of the dynamo's Russian patent
IPC H 02 K 44/00 "Method of deriving of electrical energy and organization of Gritskevich’s MHD-generator for its realization":
The dynamo is a sealed toroid filled with distilled water with heavy water (deuterium oxide) added. Movement of water inside the closed loop and use of unique properties of water as a polar liquid cause a release of electrical energy as an outcome of a rupture of hydrogen connections. Additional electrical energy is drawn from nuclear reactions and micro-cavitational processes. The liquid gets ionised and moving around the toroid at start-up time by a running magnetic field with the help of stimulating electromagnetic windings.
A layer of segneto electrical material covers the internal surfaces of the toroid. 32 electrodes made
from a hard-alloy material are inserted into the toroid at equal distances apart. These 32 electrodes are connected to a power supply. Additional stimulation windings are also connected to the power supply.
The partially pre-ionized (on the part of the heavy water) water gets ionized further by the high-voltage discharges by the 32 electrodes. With the help of the stimulation windings, a running magnetic field is created which moves the water in one direction inside the toroid. An electromotive force gets created by the electromagnetic induction in a separate set of windings. During the movement of the water stream free electrons get created, and an additional energy gets emitted because of the water’s friction (viscosity) against the layer coated on the inside surface of the toroid, because of electrostatic breakdowns of cavitatal-vacuum structures (probably same phenomena used by the hydrosonic pump – see above), and because of the ongoing nuclear reaction. 100 times as much electrical energy is generated as required for electrical energy input.
Gary C. Vesperman
2756 N. Green Valley Parkway
Henderson, Nevada 89014-2120