ABSTRACT. This paper relates to a technology applicable to biosolids processing. High speed photography has revealed reverse vortices within the apparatus. Disruption caused by the action within vortices and reverse vortices, in a cyclonic air-stream, together with the shearing action of an impeller’s blades may alter the chemical structure of water. It may dissociate water, and release : ozone; N2; hydroxide ions; hydrogen radicals; hydrogen peroxide; oxidised hydrogen protons; and various oxygen compounds (with high and low Rydberg states). Hydrogen and negatively charged oxygen molecules could have their molecular structures altered by breaking their covalent sigma bond. (It will also comminute material containing oxygen.) This technology has processed and treated sewage containing 21% dry solids. The powdered product contained up to 95% dry solid.
Keywords: Atomic, Cavitation, Dissociation, Electron, Implosion,
Quantum, Standing-wave, Torsion, Vacuum, Vortex.
Dr M W Youds Ph.D., B.A.TH (Hons). Inventor of a non-commercialised fireproof product made entirely from waste material. His research interests include Vortexian physics and theological quantum cosmology. He is the granted Patent holder of a device for altering the crystalline structure of gypsum, with 4 on-going applications for other technologies related to this paper. In his capacity as the science officer for Lodestone Technology, he is currently working on 3 research projects centred around the Coal Research Establishment (CRE) in Cheltenham - ‘Brite-Euram’ (comminution of quarry fines), ECSC (coal and steel), and ETSU (investigating the resulting energy savings from this technology). In a personal capacity, and as a Director of Helix Comminutions and Newco Sewage, he has travelled widely in his investigation of vortex technology. This paper outlines his Vortexian theory.
The apparatus consists of a high speed motor attached to an impeller rotor suction fan which rotates horizontally or vertically, contained in a housing, attached to which is a conical section. The conical section is attached to an inlet. This inlet tube is parallel, in line with the fan axis, and can be mounted horizontally or vertically. With a potential ‘solenoid’ field, a 25.4 mm metal ring, preferably made of brass, is located at the inlet to the rotor. The vanes and the ring can make mechanical energy from the kinetic and thermal energy stored in liquids. A rotor will preferably have a diameter of 612 mm - requiring a motor in the order of 200Kw, with impeller speeds up to 7222 rpm. A cyclone further enhances the process and may be used for controlling flocculation and precipitation, together with the effect of providing the necessary back-pressure required for optimum configuration of the invention.
Configuration of Apparatus
A formula is used to determine the rotor’s RPM and the length of the inlet tube - outlined later. All parts of the invention have relative dimensions to the other parts when the required standing wave is obtained, together with the following: fundamental frequencies; dominants; diatonics; harmonics; enharmonics; or sympathetic resonating isochronous wave vibrations thereof : 1 - 3 Hz; 7.24 to 10.17 Hz; 13 to 990 Hz; 27,618 Hz to 45,696 Hz.
For the processing of material to be realised, the resonant acoustics of the medium must be ascertained - i.e. its ultra-sonic frequency value and sonic frequency value. This is neither ‘Acoustophoresis’ nor ‘Electrophoresis’, nevertheless those skilled in the art of Acoustophoresis could also identify the necessary values (representative - no external source actually creates the frequencies and in their terms the ‘sonic value’ would only be a three digit ‘division’ of the first acoustic). Indeed, NASA patented  an invention in which, ‘ ...the second acoustic wave can be tuned to a frequency different from that of the first (acoustic wave), and to a different amplitude thereby producing a high resolution "shearing" of the liquid into its separate species’. 
If a wide range of frequencies and vibrations are created within the conduit, a hexagonal (assumed shape) lattice of superconductive vorticles, which can create ‘Cooper Pairs’ of electrons within ‘Soliton’ waves when the correct frequencies are input (explained later, in the formula), and non-superconductive powerful vortices are created in the air stream. This sets up pulses without and within a standing wave configuration within the system. Vorticles containing quasi single pole quantum singularities could therefore be created in the cyclonic air stream.
High speed video photography, taken by the IMC group, from inside the conical section / rotor, has successfully recorded the existence of the reverse vortices, whose growth and stability will depend upon the interrupter’s peaks’ gradient velocity.
Dissociation, Empirical, Cavitation 3
Furthermore, after tests conducted at CRE, by IMC, the harmonic spectra data supplied by IMC proved that the apparatus generated ultrasonic frequencies.
The more energy that went into forming rock, the greater the comminution potential. However, the opposite is the case for dissociation. The greater the energy input to the sewage, the less the dissociation potential e.g. it is unlikely that many types of river-bed silt would dissociate adequately for commercial purposes and neither would heavily plasticised sewage. (The ideal sewage, known to date, would be centrifuged and transported without the aid of a screw-feed device.) Polymers, particularly in combination with other polymers, would also restrict the performance of the technology. The energy release from the electrons - outlined later - would be severely reduced because their spatial motion would be restricted by the polymer. This novel invention has processed and treated centrifuged sewage containing 21% dry solids, at a rate of between 3800 Kg and 4100 kg per hour. The powdered product was between 68% and 95% dry solid. (CRE have confirmed that cattle manure was pathogen free.)
Note: Conventional comminution energy costs are 5 times higher, by comparison, than this invention. When the apparatus, configurated according to my patent application, processed 25.4 mm lumps of rock at a rate of 18 tons per hour there was no significant wear on the steel rotor.
THEORY BEHIND THE PROCESSES
‘When subject to intense sound waves, liquids can be stretched until they break and gas bubbles appear’ . During particle cavitation ionisation occurs, and certain electrons give up thousands of electron volts to produce heat. At this point, the apex of certain vortices are going faster, reducing frictional resistance, increasing the density, and reducing the temperature, therefore, the magnetic field strength will increase. An acoustic pressure amplifying oscillation and intensifying vibrational ultrasonic wave travelling through the ions produce an extremely large sound pressure level, increasing the temperature on a micro level by many thousands of degrees, but not more than 10 degrees overall. (This occurs in a ‘boundary envelope’, located in the ‘boundary cylinder’ - to be explained later.)
At this moment (of the ‘critical frequency combination of pulsed wave intensity’) of superposition between the ‘sub-critical harmonic particles combination intensity’ waves of phased and out of phase particles, either explosions and / or implosions [depending on the medium] take place together with an increase in heat. In this locality is situated a resonating two-dimensional (due to an ellipsoidal time harmonic function, relative to its dimension in space) convex complex pitch discharging ‘corona’ - hereafter referred to as the ‘corona’. This is not sonoluminescence, although there are similarities (with Chemiluminescence also).
The ‘corona’, whose nearby electric field is a time harmonic solution of Laplace’s equations in spherical co-ordinates which also interacts with a magnetic field, hermetically seals the high pressure sound level inside the ‘boundary envelope’.
The ‘corona’ is situated at the apex of a leaning reverse vortex, whose convex base emanates from the interrupter. A vacuum is created between the concave part of the interrupter and the convex base of the vortex. The interrupter is another high frequency, high amplitude, resonating complex pitch generator. Whilst rotating at speed, the leaning reverse vortex creates a ‘cylindrical boundary shape’, with a resonating calibre base. The base calibre depends on the length ‘C’ of the ‘cylinder’, as the diameter of its base is exactly the length of the ‘cylinder’ divided by Pi. The resonating calibre also produces a complex feedback loop in the ‘boundary layer’ of the ‘cylindrical shape’, which assists in breaking down the anti-nucleation energy barrier. (The apex of a ‘boundary envelope’ is located inside the ‘boundary cylinder’.) Therefore, a great deal of potential energy is obtained from the high volume resonating complex pitch of the frequencies (when the cavitation heterogeneous [due to dopants] nucleation bubble expands) at the precise moment the kinetic energy is being concentrated (when the cavitation bubble explodes).
Dissociation of water, due to an electron flow vibration - to form hydroxide ions; negative hydroxyl ions; hydrogen radicals; hydrogen peroxide; positive hydronium ions; oxidised hydrogen protons; various oxygen compounds; the elimination of bacteria; and the initiation of the formation of micro floc, can occur, amongst other processes, through electrolytic processes. The harmonic and enharmonic frequencies and ion-acoustic oscillating vibrations, enhanced by an instantaneous sweeper wave-form, occurring within the invention, could provide the same impetus as the electrical pulsating signal that occurs during those processes.
In the magnetic field, positively charged hydrogen is compressed during cavitation, which results in it also heating up. The magnetic field also compresses the hydrogen which will emit ionising radiation. The frequencies focus on the weak hydrogen bonds rather than the oxygen molecule. The word ‘dissociation’ does not adequately describe the chemical activity which changes the hydrogen and negatively charged oxygen molecules into other structures by breaking their covalent sigma bond.
In electrolysis, an electrical pulse signal must be generated in the form of a square wave and in an inverse relation to the conductivity of the water. When correctly configured, the invention becomes a high-order harmonic complex wave form generating synthesiser, wherein the conduction angle has been fixed to maximise the output of the desired harmonic . Pulses also release iron cations from iron in the fabrication. Iron cations form compounds which polymerise - on exiting the impeller - and initiate the formation of floc in the form of micro-floc, and metal hydroxides are also formed as precipitates. The cations could also destroy cyanide. 
Preferably, it would be more advantageous to ensure that the sewage had a pH value of 8 to 10, together with traces of a proteolytic enzyme, which brings the hydroxide ion concentration to a level which provides the most economic contaminant removal. The increase in pH will reduce hydronium concentration, thereby increasing electrocatalytic ion or couple cations.
Vacuum, Implosion, Explosion 5
A non-dissipating travelling electrical impulse is also located around the ‘boundary cylinder’ due to the fact that we have a high speed rotor, creating a constantly changing magnetic field containing some adiabatic electrons that move parallel to the magnetic field and at right angles to the electrical field. At this point it is worth referring to Mills’ U.S. Patent (utilising a new atomic theory) which refers to a nickel cathode (the interrupter is preferably made of a high content nickel alloy), one of the preferred embodiments in that Patent being to use ‘an intermittent square-wave having an off-set voltage of approx.’ 1.4 volts’... with an applied frequency. 
Anyone familiar with homopolar generators will accept that the invention’s high speed rotor will emit an intensified voltage. This voltage assists the process when its oscillation becomes synchronised with the input frequencies. The reverse vortex carries frequencies from the axis, and contains a concave based vortex standing columnar wave ‘boundary envelope’. This base is just below the ‘zone of vacuum polarisation’ produced by a plasma’s acoustic mode - located at the boundary layer of the two-dimensional ‘corona’, at a hyper-spacial intersection between non space-time and space-time. (This smaller ‘envelope’ has an apex angle equal to its angle of torsion vibration, from which a standing columnar wave is created.) Presumably this particular boundary layer has no additional fermionic quantum dimensions. The plasma may be produced by quantum vacuum radiation. (To suggest a ‘black hole’ is being generated would be a fanciful and ignorant remark, as it is more likely to generate ‘stars’ from the helium and hydrogen than a quantum chromodynamic holographic matrix. )
This particular vacuum in the invention, although relatively small, is important with regards to the electrical induction phenomenon and its place in quantum electrodynamics.  When the frequencies are acoustically oscillating the ions at the same time as the electrical charge from the rotor core axis and / or further pulses out of phase are introduced, an implosion takes place inside the vacuum. The ions at this point act like photons on the crystalline structure by increasing the electrons conductivity. The ‘cylinder’ also acts as a wave-guide containment field for the electro-magnetic waves, and as a gatherer of electrons in the transverse direction - a process which amplifies the sound in the ‘boundary envelope’.
Implosion / Explosion
Rocks can be ‘comminuted’, when oxygen inside the rock fissures is temporarily dissociated - e.g. into two atomic fragments, one of these fragments having a low metastable Rydberg state and the other a high Rydberg state - which are ionised as a result of thermal collision. This is because an explosion will take place when the oxygen associates, causing a massive generation of energy at a micro level. In addition, as a result of any H2O in the fissures, the acoustic waves would travel faster than those in the rock, thereby sending a shock wave through the rock.
Although implosion occurs within certain material, not without (due to degeneracy pressure), -except for dissociation in the ‘boundary envelope’ vacuum- nevertheless it is again both fanciful, and incorrect to say that rocks implode or ‘disintegrate’ - empirically it has been seen that they do not. The explosions and / or implosions do not always cause the rock to completely break apart, rather they weaken the rock and makes it brittle. The rock will impact upon the interrupter and break up -not spontaneous disintegration- the larger pieces bounce back within a reverse vortex surrounding the cylinder. This vortex is centrifugal, and so the pieces first impact against other pieces -creating smaller pieces, which move towards the inner wall of the conical section, impact against each other, and finally grind against the wall, before moving between the vanes. At all times, the material is within a flow of vortices, not travelling back and forth across a single vortex. (Both cannot occur at the same time.)
Space Vortex Energy
We should take note of Paramahamsa Tewari’s (Kaiga Atomic Power Project, Karwar, India) opening abstract from his paper ‘Phenomenon of electric charge generation by space rotation’: ‘The medium of space (absolute vacuum without matter) is defined as an incompressible, zero-mass, nonviscous, continuous and mobile entity which, in its rotation at the limiting speed of light as a submicro vortex, creates electrons. The property of electric charge of electron and its electrostatic field can be shown to be the effect of rotation of space around the electron’s centre. The mass property of electron is seen to be rising due to the creation of a spherical void (hole) at electron’s centre where space rotates at the limiting speed of light’. 
Under the right conditions, the ‘corona’ may also ‘contain’ slowed-down high-energy neutrons, with nuclei that are gravitationally and inertially confined. Anti-matter may be nothing more than an ‘echo’ from an alternative phase-space dimension caused by: the negative entropy effect from the ‘corona’; and / or the incumbent torsion field. All of the inherent processes are interactive and depend upon one another for successful treatment of the material. This novel combination of processes occurs without a chronology. (This Nexus to be known as the ‘Youds Factor’.) Its ‘Fluence’ is therefore immeasurable. This cannot be underestimated, when one considers the simultaneous knock-on effect of the infinite spiralling of processes, and its potential on the nucleonic molecular mean squared velocity. No time elapses between either implosion and / or explosion, cavitation, or the ranges in temperature and pressure etc (except for the vacuum created implosion that occurs at the ‘boundary layer’ of the ‘cylinder’ hyper-spacial intersection between non space-time and space-time).
PHYSICISTS OF NOTE
In the 19th Century, John Keely claimed he was, ‘... able to draw vibratory energy directly from space by the aid of special resonating expedients’ . He stated that this energy, ‘is duplex, or has two opposed conditions, like positive and negative states of electricity’ .
Keely, Atomic, Formula 7
The name given to this ‘space’ has changed according to the individual scientist, e.g. ‘scalar waves’, ‘tachyon energy’, ‘ether’ or, ‘negative-time-energy’, according to Robert Adams . (Adams went on to quote Nikola Tesla who said that sound waves travel at the speed of light in the ether, however, it is really particles of sound, rather than the speed of compression waves, which travel at the speed of light within vortices. These accelerating charged particles would produce vorticles, therefore the electron spin in the vorticles would give off ‘Synchroton’ radiation when spiralling into the magnetic field  - and because material is moving through the invention, the material itself produces vorticles. ) Furthermore, Keely went on to say, ‘... what we call electricity is but one of the triune currents, harmonic, enharmonic, and diatonic’ . Although nothing like the current invention, Keely’s devices utilised frequencies to create electricity and to dissociate water and matter. Indeed, the Keely motor created a standing wave with two polarisation zones within a resonator with two opposing pressure zones. The water inside the motor was subjected to impulses which caused the water to expand and therefore the pressure was increased. Readers of Keely’s work will notice that he often referred to low atomic ether produced during dissociation.
According to Dan A. Davidson, pressure is placed on the nucleus of an atom when sound pressure is placed on a mass that has had a standing wave generated within it. Furthermore he states that, ‘The wavelength of sound - Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) rattles the nucleus’, when the frequencies are on the order of the nuclear particles, ‘based on the proton spin which produces a small magnetic moment’, because ‘the speed of sound is much slower than EM so a relatively low frequency doesn’t travel very far before it has gone through a complete cycle and that distance is on the order of the proton spin resonance frequency. Thus, it is easy to see that sound can resonate with the atomic level in as far as frequency is concerned.’ 
The following formula is relative to the rotor speed being equal to 0.75 that of the air speed entering the inlet tube. In any machine where this is different, the 0.75 figure in ‘U’ should be amended. Speed is in millimetres per second. Lengths are in mm.
The key to the Abbreviations is as follows (See Figures 1 and 2 on page 11):
A = constant value 9; B = variable value B;
C = maximum ‘boundary cylinder’ length;
D = distance from the start of the sound wave to the back of the hub;
E = speed of sound value in millimetres per second;
F = ultra-sonic frequency value, in the range 27,618 to 45,696, to be input into the
‘corona and vacuum polarisation zone’;
G = distance from the back of the hub to the wider edge of the conical section;
H = combined length of the conical section length and the sound wave;
I = inlet tube length; (The interior of the inlet tube could have an aluminium lining.)
J = conical section length;
K = the sonic frequency value, in the range 103 to 359, to be input;
L = distance from the start of the inlet tube to the outside of the rotor housing casing;
M = length from the start of the sound wave to the outside of the rotor housing casing;
N = exterior distance from the wider edge of the conical section to the rotor housing;
O = optimum configuration for combined dissociation and comminution;
P = constant value 8; Q = minimum length of the ‘boundary cylinder’;
r = radius of the inlet tube;
R = rotor tip speed - divide by the circumference and multiply by 60 for the RPM;
S = variable value; T = air speed; U = K divided by 0.75;
V = one-third of I; W = one-third of X; X = 3K;
Y =constant value 5; and, Z =optimum conditions for harmonic frequency precision.
The Main 20 Equations:
1. F divided by A = B
2. E divided by B = C
3. 2(A multiplied by C) = D
4. D minus G = H
5. H minus J = I
6. I multiplied by K = R
7. H plus N = M
8. M minus 0.6r = L
9. (H divided by 2) divided by P = Q
10. (E divided by 2H) multiplied by Y = S
11. T divided by I = U
12. R divided by X = V
13. I = T divided by U
14. W = R divided by I
15. Distance Q to C = The ‘corona’ and ‘vacuum polarisation nexus zone’
16. When S = X, then Z
17. When C = Q, then O
18. Space is folded, rather than time reversal, when C is less than Q
(explained later, in the section ‘Heuristic Applications’)
19. 3(R divided by S)+J+N-0.6r-’L’=degree of accuracy for ‘L’ in mm.
20. 3(R divided by S) multiplied by K, minus R, divided by the rotor’s circumference, multiplied by 60 = the degree of accuracy in the rotor’s rpm.
Additional Parameters To Be Considered
To estimate how much water will be removed from the sewage you can use the following guideline: (‘C’ divided by 2‘P’) minus the distance between ‘C’ and ‘Q’ = a variable. Divide this variable by (‘C’ divided by 2‘P’) = another variable. Multiply this new variable by the percentage of water in the sewage to find the number of percentage points that will be deducted (‘PD’) from the original percentage of water in the sewage. However, at cooler ambient air temperatures the actual percentage of water removed may increase because of increased conductivity transmission rates when the temperature declines. On a continuous basis, as a guide, the apparatus will process 0.65 kg per hour of sewage, for every 1 rpm of the rotor.
Blades, Heuristic, Fusion 9
For every increase above the through-put guide figure, a proportional decrease in the amount of water dissociated will occur. For example, an 8% increase in the amount of sewage fed into the apparatus, above the ‘guide’ figure given above, would result in an 8% reduction of ‘PD’. The very high centrifugal acceleration that is present assists in the stability of the ‘boundary cylinder’, despite the introduction of material to be processed. An excess of material, or a high inconsistent through-put, may cause instability within the reverse vortices.
Although the primary process takes place around the ‘corona’, the ‘boundary cylinder’ where the itinerant nucleonic dipolar field is excited, and the ‘boundary envelope’, other processes occur, other than these three areas - e.g., the reverse vortex that extends as far into the inlet tube as the length of the ‘cylinder’.
Number of Blades (vanes)
An 8 vane is less likely to: square the wave-form; smooth the wave-form; or reach the required sub-critical decibel intensity ranges - although it is better than a 9 vane at producing heterodynes. Furthermore, the peak frequencies generated by the 8 vane can be five-sixths of the frequency input for the 9 or 10 vane impeller. The following equation can be used to establish the preferred number of vanes: (‘F’ divided by 6) divided by (The RPM established from ‘R’, divided by 10) = the number of vanes to be used on the impeller.)
If Randell L. Mills’ atomic theory  is correct, then cold fusion (or ‘Coulombic Annihilation Fusion’ - [‘CAF’]) is obviously taking place inside the invention. The CAF process present would not be on-going, due to a lack of nuclei during the neutron flux which would occur after the spherical shock wave obtained a neutron split over neutron loss. When ‘CAF’ occurs, the ‘corona’ plasma’s electrical resistance decreases.
The proof that cold fusion effects are limited is based on empirical evidence, namely the formation of Abrikosov vortices and temporary gamma-radiation that occur when the invention is correctly configured. This could mean that oppositely spinning pairs of photons would be present - John Griggs’ 1954 ‘Unified particle theory’.
Instantaneously occurring sweeper wave-forms, referred to earlier, are often associated with thunderstorms, as are Abrikosov vortices, ball-lightning, electrical discharging plasma, and neutron formation. 
The technology could therefore create permanent ‘storm’ conditions, coupled with vortex energy. As such, the law of conservation of energy is maintained, together with no loss of quantum information. In the equation, C is less than Q, space is ‘folded’ due to a rapid increase in captured photons sympathetically vibrating with their counterparts at an immeasurable distance - rather than as a result of virtual photons being produced by the vacuum - assisted by the ‘solitons’ being squeezed - which also assists the refinement of the ultrasonic frequency and the creation of negative feedback, enhanced by the resulting action from the nickel ions, travelling back down the centre of the inlet tube, being surrounded by incoming aluminium ions. When space ‘folds’ (not warps) dissociation reduces dramatically but implosions within matter, for comminution, increases dramatically. This is because the vacuum polarisation zone is now in front of the ‘corona’, rather than below it. The percentage of CAF taking place also increases. (‘C’ minus ‘Q’) divided by (‘C’ divided by 2‘P’) multiplied by 5.4617215 = the percentage of time that the CAF process takes place.
The duality of particles / waves should be viewed from the perspective of the vibration from the nucleus, acting as a protective barrier to its programming. Particles form themselves into waves through sympathetic attraction to the protective wave barrier. Therefore, the nucleus is dictating the wavelength to the electron. From a theological cosmology, all matter is attracted in an effort to achieve consciousness. This ‘ether’ consciousness is beyond the ‘Youds Factor’ space vortex energy source - where neutral mass particles, of neither matter nor anti-matter, do not revolve until an external source activates them, in their potential fields, to produce matter. Prior to activation, there is no ‘time’ or Weyl curvature.
In a magnetic field, when particular external frequencies bombard the nucleus, the radiative electron particles are further excited and change their orbital movement. During self-polarisation, if you sufficiently alter the vibration from the nucleus, then solid matter may cease to be solid, together with an excess combination of electrons whose up / down equilibrium has now been destroyed. Although the out of phase waves cause interference and cancel each other out, the inward ‘missing spin’ dialectic particles remain and are attracted - making them susceptible to be dictated to from an external, quantum mechanically generated, matrix of standing waves. The knowledge obtained theoretically and empirically, is limited to only altering the matrix of frequencies in order to control the processes herein. However, if you could accurately dictate the structure of the matrix (and its relationship to valence band electrons) you could therefore create any kind of matter you desire - only if the relationship between the particle spectrum (and its physical probability factor [as an imaginary number only]) and the nucleus’ wave (and its matrix / matrices) is established. (I.E. particle to wave, not wave to ‘superposed’ wave.)
To the layman, the phenomenon described herein seems incredible because the process can’t be easily ‘visualised’, or therefore easily understood. However, any enlightened physicist could see that no laws of physics have to be reinterpreted, or Higgs particles / fields included, in order to explain it - with no ‘strings’ attached.
Figure 1, Figure 2 11
Figure 1. Sketch of the apparatus
Figure 2. Photograph of the apparatus
The sound-wave chemistry of Philip Boudjouk, Chemist, North Dakota State University. The experiments in 1952 by Dr. Franz Popel, Stuttgart Technical University. Dan Davidson for his, ‘Energy: Breakthroughs to Free Energy Devices’, which, on page 33 and 34 shows how Keely could find the resonant frequency of a material. The section, ‘Nature of excited states’ by James A. Patterson, Ph.D. in his U.S. Patent 5,607,563. Randell L. Mills’ atomic theory compounded in U.S. Patent No. 6,024,935. The atomic energy theory that recognises the energy in electron spin - John Ecklin, U.S. Patent No. 4,567,407.
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